Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Implementation of STEM Education Programs in Schools Article

Implementation of STEM Education Programs in Schools - Article Example Implementation in this context means an amalgamation of concepts from the three disciplines. In the article, the authors are of the thought that it would be tasking to effectively implement teaching and learning of these concepts without incorporating the contribution of languages, arts as well as the social sciences (Satchwell and Loepp, 2002). The process curriculum has seen an effectual implementation of the STEM subjects in schools. The successful implementation as the authors argue, involved the contribution of the project team, and the design panel who were involved in revising the curriculum so as to incorporate the needs of all learners (Satchwell and Loepp, 2002). Information from all stakeholders was collected, all in an attempt to ensure quality implementation of the STEM program. Through the process, the learners in Middle schools have been indicated to not only explore the ideas in the concerned disciplines but also apply the ideas in various contexts (Satchwell and Loepp, 2002). This is a clear elucidation of the fact that implementation of the STEM curriculum in schools has been successful. However, it is significant to draw attention to the verity that the authors clearly emphasize that the implementation process has been faced with a myriad of challenges. Among the challenges involve the teachers’ need to learn novel content in the present setting (Satchwell and Loepp, 2002). Some teachers have also had a negative attitude towards implementing the STEM curriculum; thus, hindering successful implementation. Authentic tests have also been a major impediment as the students’ progress was not consistent throughout the learning process (Satchwell and Loepp, 2002). Nonetheless, the authors appreciate the fact that classroom management has played an immense role in ensuring that STEM disciplines are implemented (Satchwell and Loepp, 2002). Schools that managed to design tests that

Monday, October 28, 2019

Understanding Non-verbal Communication Essay Example for Free

Understanding Non-verbal Communication Essay Communication has always been an integral component of accomplishing goals and objectives of any institution and organization. It is used as a tool in conveying information and promoting the values, principles and objectives of any institution. Likewise, non-verbal communication is also a process deemed vital in the interplay of individuals within an organization or group. Seeing this, by adequately understanding the different ways that people can communicate, individuals can harness the needed boost towards better facilitation, management, and cooperation needed. In the end, by boosting the skills needed to maximize non-verbal communication, each one can extract new approaches to make practice more effective and efficient. Understanding Non-verbal communication Before elaborating on the relevance of non-verbal communication, it is essential that people understand the meaning of the concept. By grasping this concept, each one can effectively apply the strategies and methods of intensifying and providing the needed avenues for change. With these, the term refers to the imparting of messages to parties via other channels other than words (Fowler, 2006). This method can be considered innate in our biological makeup as humans. â€Å"Non-verbal behaviour predates verbal communication because individuals, since birth, rely first on non-verbal means to express themselves† (Besson, et. al. , 2005, p. 1). At the same time, this process comprises of different parts and revolve around (1) visual, (2) tactile, (3) vocal, and (3) use of time space and image (CBA. edu, 2006). These things in turn are manifested by using different practices such as facial expression, body language, etc. (BOMI, 2006). All these actions seek to relay information and denote a particular meaning in the action given or imparted to the receiver. Seeing this, it is then essential to underline the ways that people interact non-verbally. By doing this, there can be better avenues for increased understanding among the speaker and receiver engaged in a conversation. Intonation and Tone of voice The use of intonation and tone of voice are relevant ideas to consider as far as non-verbal communication is concerned. The firs concept involves deciphering the â€Å"end of an entity of information, which – in written communication – is shown by means of a comma, semicolon, point, exclamation mark or question mark† (Besson, et. al. , 2005, p. 3). Comprehending this can benefit the individual in actively determining the mood and feelings of the speaker. On the other hand, tone of voice is another essential component of non-verbal communication. In this process, it seeks to connote the attitude of the speaker towards a chosen area or topic being discussed (Fowler, 2006). This is essentially vital for listeners to decipher because it can give them the idea surrounding the overall intention of the speaker is relaying to its target audience. Gestures and Facial Expressions Another significant element that individuals should understand is the relative message that gestures and facial expressions can give to the overall idea that the speaker wants to imply. Looking at it, these two ideas revolve around the body movements that are aligned with the verbal component (Your Communication Skills, 2007). These things in turn also cater to express the feelings, sentiments and opinions of individuals towards a specific issue being discussed. Seeing this, by carefully observing the speakers and listeners, one can effectively decode their responses towards the information conveyed to them. Interpreting Non-verbal Communication Interpretation remains an essential element in creating proficiency and better insight in the practice of non-verbal communication. In here, the individual must carefully observe and look into cues that can cultivate and supplement their verbal responses on a given issue or subject. These things can then eliminate areas of confusion, conflict and disagreements between individuals and groups. One important way to practice non-verbal communication is by engaging in face-to-face interaction. This practice can help one individual to actively observe and apply the related components of the idea. â€Å"Face-to-face communication provides immediate feedback and is the richest information medium because of the many information channels available through voice, eye contact, posture, blush, and body language† (BOMI, 2006, p. 1). Seeing this, listening and observation are the key elements to make this endeavor successful. In addition, face-to-face interaction can enhance new principles and objectives that can create and establish strong relationships among actors within a particular group/organization. This process can in turn provide the needed outcomes in achieving potential benefits for all individuals involved. â€Å"It is the appropriate medium for delegating tasks, coaching, disciplining, instructing, sharing information, answering questions, checking progress toward objectives, and developing and maintaining interpersonal relations† (BOMI, 2006). Looking at the listening component, this is relevant in better comprehending the term because of its ability to infuse better appreciation and understanding of the topic. This practice can create sensitivity not only in the verbal component but also cater towards extracting verbal cues if properly coordinated with the proper observation skills (Giddens and Griffiths, 2006). Moreover, â€Å"when one listens they have to hear the emotion in the words and read between the lines of the words to get the full meaning of a transmission that is received† (Your Communication Skills, 2007, p. 1). Thus, it is essential for these two actions to be properly incorporated when one engages into dialogue with others. Looking into cultural differences Since communication is a social construct, another essential element that should be looked into is the occurrence of cultural differences among people/group engaged in conversation. With the increasing diversity and interaction within different environments, it is possible that individuals interpret actions in different ways. Seeing this, â€Å"a successful interpretation of non-verbal elements conveyed by the speaker requires the same understanding of the symbols shared between interpreter and speaker† (Besson, et. al. , 2006, p. 1). Realizing this situation, it can beneficial if people can take into account the relevance of cultural background in communication practices. One thing to determine these non-verbal cues is becoming aware and sensitive to these things and uses them as an instrument for interpretation and analysis (Fowler, 2006). Rather than seeing this as a barrier of conducting effective communication and interaction, culture must be used as a medium of increasing competence and correctly interpret the cues and symbols given (Giddens and Griffiths, 2006). Opening up avenues for feedback Like any other social construct, communication should also try to reach out and open up new avenues for change and improvement. This then entitles a particular organization/group to come up with new ideas aligned on creating better understanding on the interaction process and take into consideration the impact of non-verbal communication in the achievement of goals and processes (CBA. edu, 2006). Likewise, it opens up the potential of filling in the gaps within the communication process and extracts newer outcomes in the process. Seeing this, instead of correcting and finding fault in the shortcomings of many individuals in such process, constructive feedbacks can then be applied to create a renewed understanding and commitment. Under this procedure, several methods can be introduced to extract opinions and facilitate the needed avenues for development. Conclusion To conclude, non-verbal communication remains to be an important component to consider as far as communication and dialogue is concerned. This allows individuals to effectively and efficiently decipher the needed information that can support the essence of interaction and exchange of ideas. Due to this, careful considerations must be made in order to fully comprehend the impact of the concept. By taking account the factors that affect non-verbal communication and creating a feedback mechanisms, better outcomes can be administered and enhance interpersonal relationship among individuals/groups involved. References Besson, C. , Graf, D. , Hartung, I. , Kropfhausser, B. and Voisard, S. (2005) The Importance of Non-verbal communication in Professional Interpretation in aiic. Retrieved March 27, 2009 from, http://www. aiic. net/ViewPage. cfm/page1662. htm#2 BOMI (2006) Effective Communication in the Workplace. Retrieved March 27, 2009 1-5. CBU. edu (2006) The importance of effective communication. Retrieved March 27, 2009 from, http://web. cba. neu. edu/~ewertheim/interper/commun. htm Fowler, K. (2006) Communicating Effectively – Why you need to get your message across. Retrieved March 27, 2009. 1-4 Giddens, A. and Griffiths, S. (2006) Social Interaction in Everyday Life in Sociology. (US; Polity) Retrieved March 27, 2009. 133-139. Your Communication Skills (2007) Communication skills. Retrieved March 27, 2009 from, http://www. yourcommunicationskills. com/nonverbalcommunicationskills. html

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Birth of A Nation :: essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Birth of a Nation: 1607-1815   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It has been said that the Declaration of Independence was more democratic and for equality and the Constitution was more for a republic that benefited only some people. The Declaration was idealistic the Constitution realistic. That 1776 gave us liberty and 1787 gave us order. Although as unfair as it may sound this seems to be true. After gaining liberty this country had to establish a system that would have order.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When declaring independence, the bulk of the people thought that would be â€Å"†¦to burn the last bridge, to become traders in the eyes of the mother country.† (Garraty 110). John Dickinson had stated, â€Å" ‘Torn from the body to which we are united by religion, liberty, laws, affections, relation, language and commerce, we must bleed at every vein.’ â€Å" (Garraty 110). The people were afraid to break away, they pondered â€Å" ‘Where shall we find another Britain.’ â€Å" (Garraty 110). Eventually independence was inevitable. There was a great mistrust towards both Parliament and George III when the colonists heard that the British were sending hired Hessian soldiers to fight against them in the revolution. The pamphlet written by Thomas Paine entitled Common Sense called boldly for complete independence. This reflected his opinions on George III, calling him a brute, and also attacking the idea of monarchy itself. à ¢â‚¬Å"Virtually everyone in the colonies must have read Common Sense or heard it explained and discussed.† (Garraty 110). John Adams dismissed it as something he had said time and time again. â€Å"The tone of the debate changed sharply as Paine’s slashing attack took effect.† (Garraty 110). A committee was appointed by Congress, consisting of Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and many more. â€Å"The committee had asked Jefferson to prepare a draft† that would soon become known as the Declaration of Independence. (Garraty 112). It consisted of two parts: an introduction which justified the abstract right of any people to revolt and described the theory on which the Americans based their creation of a new, republican government, and a second part that made George III, rather than Parliament, look like the ‘bad guy’. â€Å"†¦The king was the personification of the nation against which the nation was rebelling.† (Garraty 112). â⠂¬Å"The Declaration was intended to influence foreign opinion, but it had little immediate effect outside Great Britain, and there it only made people angry and determined to subdue the rebels.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Case Essay

Telefonica de Espana. Does your analysis lead to the same conclusions as Telefonica’s managers? The textbook explains SWOT as an acronym for â€Å"Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats†. Strengths; Telefonica is a monopoly at this time because it is state owned and this is a major strength for them. The fact that Spain’s culture and language is similar to the market in South America is a major advantage as well. Weaknesses; According to the textbook the prices associated with Telefonica’s service was high. Competitors were looking to exploit this by offering cheaper service with better technology. Companies who could lower their profit margin are a major concern for Telefonica. Opportunities; The deregulation of telecommunications in South America (with the cultural similarities as I mentioned before) seemed to be the perfect opportunity to enter this market and be successful. Threats; Due to the many complaints from their customers Telefonica faces many threats from competitors in this â€Å"new market†. There is a chance that they may not survive in this market if they do not provide better service and technology. 2. How would you characterize the corporate strategy adopted by Telefonica? 3. Minority investors in Telefonica’s South American subsidiaries are unhappy with the parent corporation. Suppose you are a senior manager at the parent corporation. How would you handle the problem with the minority investors? What would you recommend to the CEO should be done about the minority investors? 4. The Latin American telecommunications market is growing much faster (12. 6 percent in 2007) than that of Spain or Europe, both of which grew at a 4. 9 percent rate in 2007. Should Telefonica have continued to focus on the Latin American market, rather than acquire O2 and Cseky? What about its purchase of a minority position in China Netcom?

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Commercialization of Agriculture Essay

Introduction The British rule had pronounced and profound economic impact on India. The various economic policies followed by the British led to the rapid transformation of India’s economy into a colonial economy whose nature and structure were determined by needs of the British economy. One important aspect of British economic policy was commercialization of agriculture. Commercialization of agriculture which can be defined as a process where peasants start producing primarily for sale in distant markets, rather than to meet their own need for food or to sell in local markets, (Roy, 2007) has taken place at different times in response to different stimuli. In the Indian context though a number of commercial crops such as cotton, tobacco and sugarcane were grown fairly extensively even before the advent of British rule (Habib, 1982), since land revenue had to be paid mostly in cash and the prices of these crops were much higher at that time relative to the prices of foodgrains, however, commercialization of agriculture at that time corresponded only to the requirements of traditional â€â€"revenue economy‘ in which the main form of revenue payable happened to be an indistinguishable mix of tax, tribute and rent (Raj, 1985). No doubt the need to pay revenue in cash was the initial compelling force for the marketing of agricultural produce, the large surpluses so extracted from agriculture, without a flow of goods and services in the reverse direction in exchange, was basically an impediment to further commercialization (Raj, 1985). Thus, commercialization of agriculture in pre-British period existed only in its embryonic form. In true sense, therefore, agriculture of India got a commercial orientation during the British rule. Industrialization in Europe and Commercialization of Agriculture in India The commercialization of Indian Agriculture took place not to feed the industries of India because India was far behind in industrial development as compared to Britain, France, Belgium and many other European countries of eighteenth century. The commercialization of Indian Agriculture was done primarily to feed the British industries that it was taken up and achieved only in cases-of those agricultural products which were either needed by the  British industries or could fetch cash commercial gain to the British in the European or American market. For example, several efforts were made to increase the production of cotton in India to provide raw and good quality cotton to the cotton-textile industries of Britain which were growing fast after the Industrial Revolution in Britain. Therefore, cotton growing area increase in India and its production increased manifold with gradual lapse of time. Indigo and more than that, tea and coffee plantation were encouraged in India because these could get commercial market abroad. It was beneficial to the British planters, traders and manufacturers, who were provided with opportunity to make huge profits by getting the commercialized agricultural products at, throw away prices. The commercialization of Indian agriculture also partly benefited Indian traders and money lenders who made huge fortunes by working as middlemen for the British. This regard they acted as conduits delivering the products from peasants to the British company from where it was taken abroad. Though markets and trade in agricultural goods existed in quite organized forms and on a large scale in the pre-British period but the market expansion in the British period marked a qualitative and quantitative break. According to Tirthankar Roy, there were three main qualitative changes. â€â€"First, before the British rule, product markets were constrained and subject to imperfections, given multiplicity of weights and measures, backward and risky transportation systems, and extensive use of barter. British rule and the railways weakened these constraints. By doing so, it enabled closer integration of global, regional and local markets. Second, from the time of industrial revolution, a new international specialization began to emerge as a result of trade. India specialized, in agricultural exports. Third, in turn, changes in the product market induced changes in land, labor, and credit markets‘ (Roy, 2007). The American Civil War also indirectly encouraged commercialization of agriculture in India: the British cotton demand was diverted to India. The demand of cotton was maintained even after the civil war ceased because of the rise of cotton textile industries in India. The commercialization of India agriculture was initiated in India by the British through their direct and indirect policies and activities. Firstly, the new land tenure system introduced in form of permanent settlement and Ryotwari Settlement had made agricultural land a freely exchangeable commodity. The Permanent settlement by giving ownership right to the zamindars created a class of wealthy landlords; they could make use of this ownership right by sale or purchase of land. Secondly, the agriculture which had been way of life rather than a business enterprise now began to be practiced for sale in national and international market. Thirdly, the political unity established by the British and the resulted in rise of the unified national market. Fourthly, the spread of money economy replaced the barter and agricultural goods became market items and the replacement of custom and tradition by competition and contract. Finally, the British policy of one way free trade also acted as sufficient encouraging factor for commercialization as the manufactured items in textile, jute etc. could find free entry in Indian markets, where as the manufactured goods did not have similar free access to European markets. Impact of Commercialization on Indian Agriculture It is interesting to note that though there is little controversy with regard to the role of British in initiating and promoting the forces which led to the commercialization of Indian agriculture, however, the nature of commercialization and its impact on the Indian peasantry had been very controversial issue, both during and after the British rule. To the nationalists, it was not out of the free will of the cultivators– commercialization of agriculture was forced and artificial (Dutt, 1906). This was so because the high pitch of revenue demand in cash compelled the cultivators to sell large portion of the produce of their fields keeping an insufficient stock for their own consumption. On the other hand the colonial bureaucracy argued that it was the market force rather than the pressure of land revenue that was drawing the farmers into the business of production for the market. The commercial crops were more profitable and this economic incentive led them to produce for sale and export, thus making it possible for them to increase per capita income. Furthermore, the imperialist historiography and the colonial bureaucracy viewed commercialization of  agriculture, the expansion of trade in agricultural products and the rising agricultural prices as an indication of the â€â€"growing prosperity of the peasantry.‘ (Satyanarayana, 2005). On the other hand anti-imperialist historiography (both nationalist and radical Marxist) emphasizing the negative impact of commercialization of agriculture and the integration implied that agricultural production in India was to be determined by imperial preferences and needs (Bhatia, 1967). Moreover, other historians following the neo-classical economic theory or with anti-imperialistic orientations (Marxists and non Marxists) have extended their support to either of the two. The commercialization of agriculture was a forced and artificial process for the majority of Indian peasants. It was introduced under coercion of the British and not out of the incentive of peasantry at large. The peasantry went for cultivation of commercial crops under duress. Most importantly the life of the Indian peasant was tied to the highly fluctuating national and international market. He was no longer a deciding factor in agricultural practices. Further, by making agricultural land a tradable commodity, the peasant lost his security feeling. High land revenue demand forced him to take loan from the money lender at high interest rates. Failure to pay debt in time meant loss of land to the money lender at high interest rates. It led to land alienation and increase in the number of agricultural laborers whose conditions especially in plantation industry was pathetic. He had to pay the land revenue due to the British government in time. Moreover, he had to grow commercial crop on a specified tract of his land under the oppression of planters. Also, Indian money lenders advanced Cash advances to the farmers to cultivate the commercial crops and if the peasants failed to pay him back in time, the land of peasants came under ownership of moneylenders. The poor peasant was forced to sell his produce just after harvest at whatever prices he could get. This placed him at the money of the grain merchant, who was in a position to dictate terms and who purchased his produced at much less than the market price. It also resulted in reduced area under cultivation of food crops. The net result of this change was that Indian failed to produce even that much food  crops which could provide even two square meals a day to its population. The misery was further enhanced became the population of India was increasing every year, fragmentation of land was taking place because of the increasing pressure on land and modern techniques of agricultural production were not introduced in India. While the upper class and British industries benefited-from it, the Indian peasants’ life was tied to remote international market. It affected adversely the poor people of India; it became difficult for them to get even sufficient food. This becomes ample from the fact that ill 1880 India had a surplus of foodstuffs to the extent of five million tons and by 1945 it had a deficit of 10 million tons. George Byn records that from 1893-94 to 1945-46, the production of commercial crops increased by 85 percent and that of food crops fell by 7 percent. This had a devastating effect on the rural economy and often took the shape of famines. Bhatia believes that the earlier famines were localized, and it was only after 1860, during the British rule, that famine came to signify general shortage of foodgrains in the country. There were approximately 25 major famines spread through states such as Tamil Nadu in the south, and Bihar and Bengal in the east during the latter half of the 19th century. Great Depression and Indian Agriculture A global economic depression broke out in 1929. However, the causes were more diverse and multi-pronged, with the decrease in costs and economic deflation of the post-war period being one of the main reasons. This deflation was caused by excessive manufacturing activities during the First World War. As a result, huge stocks of goods were piled up without being used. Wartime expenditure had reduced the countries of Europe to a state of heavy debt (Manikumra, 2003). With the outbreak of the Second World War, India was required to provide the resources for financing the war expenditures, which amounted to nearly 38 billion rupees from 194146. Government attached excessive importance in maintaining war related production, as a result of which a comprehensive system of supplying food to the urban areas at controlled prices was put in place. The rural poor were not viewed as being essential to the war effort and so the main burden of war financing was  passed on to them. With the Great Depression, agricultural prices worldwide started falling earlier than industrial prices. As a result, the manufacturing-agriculture terms of trade turned sharply against agriculture. A substantial redistribution took place from the mass of rural producers to urban classes. Thus the combination of the long term trend of decline in per head production of foodgrains, a rise in per head production of exportable and the effects of deteriorating terms of trade created a set of pre-famine conditions in the sense that any substantial shock to the economic system under these circumstances was almost certain to precipitate famine in the absence of countervailing intervention. Taxes were jacked up and deficit financing by printing money was resorted to and money supply is estimated to have raised five folds in the four years from 1940.As a result there was a war boom and profit inflation. Rice price started an upward spiral from the last quarter of 1941, doubled within a year a nd quadrupled within eighteen months. Also, the colonial government from the beginning strongly pushed exportable production by forcible cultivation of poppy in the early 19th century and export of opium to China, culminating in the infamous opium wars and indigo mutiny. With time overt force became less necessary as the pressure of revenue demand transmitted down to the peasant cultivators as the pressure of rental demand and in the case of landlords paying the revenue; compelled peasants to grow more commercial crops to sell and to commercialize food production itself. Famine: Indian Agriculture strained by commercialization and Great Depression The fall in prices had been higher in India compared to the rest of the world, the price of commodities manufactured in India rose dramatically compared to imports from the United   Kingdom or some other country in the world. The Great Depression had a terrible impact on the Indian farmer. While there was a steady, uninhibited increase in land rent, the value of the agricultural produce had come down  to alarming levels. Therefore, having incurred heavy losses, the farmer was compelled to sell off gold and silver ornaments in his possession in order to pay the land rent and other taxes. Farmers who were cultivating food crops had earlier moved over to cash crop cultivation in large numbers to meet the demands of the mills in the United Kingdom. Now, they were crippled as they were unable to sell their products in India due to the high prices; nor could they export the commodities to the United Kingdom which had recently adopted a protective policy prohibiting imports from India. An ex ante excess of investment over savings was converted to equality through forced savings extracted via food price inflation from the rural population. The consumption of food was then estimated at one and a half pound per individual and in 1945 it was 1 pound. Nearly thirty percent of the Indian population was estimated to be suffering from chronic malnutrition and under nutrition. Thus, the commercialization of agriculture in India by the British was also one of the important causes of the impoverishment of the Indian people. This resulted in a combination of famines and epidemics claiming around 2.7 to 3.1 million lives. The most cited example is that of ―Bengal Faminesâ€â€". Romesh Chunder Dutt argued as early as 1900, and present-day scholars such as Amartya Sen agree, that some historic famines were a product of both uneven rainfall and British economic and administrative policies, which since 1857 had led to the seizure and conversion of local farmland to foreign-owned plantations, restrictions on internal trade, heavy taxation of Indian citizens to support British. The Great Famine of 1876–78, in which 6.1 million to 10.3 million people died and the Indian famine of 1899–1900, in which 1.25 to 10 million people died were the most destructive famines. The Bengal Famine resulted in approximately 3 million   deaths. Generally the estimates are between 1.5 and 4 million, considering death due to starvation, malnutrition and disease, out of Bengal’s 60.3 million populations. Half of the victims would have died from disease after food became available in December 1943. Generally it is thought that there was serious decrease in food production during that time which is coupled with continuing export of grain. However according to Amartya Sen, there was no significant decrease in food production in 1943 (in fact food production  was higher compared to 1941). The highest mortality was not in previously very poor groups, but among artisans and small traders whose income vanished when people spent all they had on food and did not employ cobblers, carpenters, etc. The famine also caused major economic and social disruption, ruining millions of families. Conclusion Since colonial times, opinions would seem to have been divided between â€â€"optimists‘, for whom commercialization marked progress and a growing prosperity for all; â€â€"pessimists‘, for whom it marked regress into deepening class stratification and mass pauperization; and â€â€"skeptics‘ who held that it made very little difference and that its impact was largely absorbed by pre-existing structures of wealth accumulation and power on the land. However, capitalization in the 21 st century is said to create similar impact as colonial times, the only difference being that the later one was forced through oppressive policies, whereas the former would be market driven. The farmer in his choice of crops attached greater importance to market demand and price than o other factors. Capitalism has mixed impacts on Indian agriculture. While it brings about liberalization and globalization that leads to trans-border availability of agricultural products all over the world, it breaks the economic self-sufficiency in India leading to greater dependency on  market forces. Export of food products is one of the major reasons for inflation in India, it reduces the availability of agricultural products in India, increasing the demand and thus escalating the prices. Trade and liberalization has also made Indian agriculture vulnerable to global crisis. However, it provides for a national economy and also brought about regional specialization of crops on an efficient basis. Hence, it is essential to learn from the lessons in the past and formulate policies to mitigate the negative impacts on Indian agriculture while being globally connected and liberalized. 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Ludden, David. â€Å"Agrarian Commercialism in Eighteenth Century South India: Evidence From the 1823 Tirunelveli Census.† Indian Economic and Social History Review 25, no. 4 (1988): 493-520. ———. â€Å"The Terms of Ryotwari Praxis: Changing Property Relations Among Mirasidars in the Tinnevelly District.† In Studies in South India: An Anthology of Recent Research and Critical Scholarship, Editor Pauline Kolenda, pp.151-70. Madras: New Era Publications and the American Institute of Indian Studies, 1985. Ludden, David (editor). Agricultural Production and Indian History. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994. Manikumar, K. A. A Colonial Economy in the Great Depression, Madras (1929–1937). Orient Blackswan. (2003). ISBN 978-81-250-2456-9. Mishra, Satish Chandra. â€Å"Commercialisation, Peasant Differentiation and Merchant Capital in Late Nineteenth Century Bombay and Punjab.† Journal of Peasant Studies 10, no. 1 (1982). Mokyr, Joel editor. The British Industrial Revolution: An Economic Perspective. Boulder: Westview Press, 1993. Naoroji, Dadabhai. Poverty and British Rule in India. 1901. (accessed on September 4th, 2014) Raj, K.N. Neeladari Bhattacharya, Sumit Guha, and Shakti Padhi (ed.), Essays on Commercialization of Agriculture in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press, (1985), p. viii. Rajasekhar, D. â€Å"Commercialization of Agriculture and Changes in Distribution of Land Ownership in Kurnool District of Andhra 9C.1900-1950).† The South Indian Economy: Agrarian Change, Industrial Structure, and State Policy, C1914-1947, 78-119. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1991. Ray, Rajat Kanta. â€Å"The Bazaar: Changing Structural Characteristics in the Indigenous Section of the Indian Economy Before and After the Great Depression.† The Indian Economic and Social History Review 25, no. (3) (1988): pp. 263-318. Robb, Peter. â€Å"Peasant’ Choices? Indian Agriculture and the Limits of Commercialization in Nineteenth-Century Bihar.† The Economic History Review XLV, no. 1 (1992). Roy, Tirthankar. The Economic History of India, 1857-1947. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, second edition (2007), p. 124. Satyananarayana A., Expansion of Commodity Production and Agrarian Market. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, second edition (2005), p. 182. Satyasai, K. J. S., and K. U. Viswanathan. â€Å"Commercialisation and Diversification of Indian Agriculture.† Economic and Political Weekly 31, no. 45-46 (1996): 3027-28. Sen, Amartya K. Poverty and Famines: An Essay in Entitlement and Deprivation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981. Shiva, Vandana. Ecology and the Politics of Survival: Conflicts Over Natural Resources in India. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1991. Tilly, Louise A. â€Å"Food Entitlement, Famine, and Conflict.† In Hunger and History: The Impact of Changing Food Productionand Consumption Patterns on Society, Editors Robert I. Rotberg and Theodore K. Rabb, 135-52. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Wakimura, Kohei. The Indian Economy and Disasters during the Late Nineteenth Century: Problems of Interpretation of Colonial Economy. (accessed on September 6th, 2014) Washbrook, David. â€Å"The Commercialization of Agriculture in Colonial India: Production, Subsistence and Reproduction in the ‘Dry South’, C. 1870-1930.† Modern Asian Studies 28, no. 1 (1994): 129-64.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Air Pollution in Australia essays

Air Pollution in Australia essays 1. Identify current trends, scale and likely future sources of carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead, particles and photochemical oxidants..... AGA notes that considerable background material is already available on this issue including the State of the Environment Report and other processes being developed through the NEPC. It is important that reporting by the Inquiry take account of existing material. 2. Identify and evaluate management options for each of the identified pollutants, including options which address one or more pollutants together, which will lead to improved urban air quality in the medium (5-10 years) and longer (10-15 years) term. It is widely recognized that use of gaseous transport fuels  ¾ liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas for vehicles (NGVs)  ¾ can assist in improving urban air quality. In response to the Federal Government's development of a national Sustainable Energy Policy for Australia, the AGA, the Australian Liquefied Petroleum Gas Association and the Australasian Natural Gas Vehicles Council released a report in January 1997 titled Gaseous Transport Fuels Policy Development (copy attached). The submission indicates that motor vehicles account for over 80 percent of carbon monoxide, 45 percent of hydrocarbons and 67 percent of nitrogen dioxide emissions. It also notes that Australia's transport sector is a major contributor towards the energy sector's greenhouse gas Wider adoption of gaseous transport fuels would have substantial benefits in reduced carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide, lead and particulate emissions. Gaseous transport fuels also lead to reduced carbon dioxide emissions. A report prepared for the AGA (to be published as an AGA Research Paper) indicates that: NGV tailpipe emissions of carbon monoxide are between 49 and 99 percent lower than new generation LPG systems can...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Working With The Homeless Social Work Essay Essay Example

Working With The Homeless Social Work Essay Essay Example Working With The Homeless Social Work Essay Essay Working With The Homeless Social Work Essay Essay Using recent research discuss how recent attacks have sought to undertake the lodging and homelessness jobs and critically analyse, utilizing modern-day studies and policy proclamations, how the late elected Conservative and Liberal democrat alliance authorities may impact these attacks. Nobody should be made homeless by controversial cuts to lodging benefitsaˆÂ ¦aˆÂ ¦aˆÂ ¦I do nt believe it will be necessary for anybody to travel without a place David Cameron, UK Prime Minister, ( BBC, 28/10/10 ) . In 2008, due to assorted grounds, there was a terrible addition in defaults on sub premier mortgages in the U.S.A. This caused a deficit of financess available for loaning that meant loans became impossible to acquire. What we now call the banking crisis spread throughout the remainder of the universe and brought the universe to its articulatio genuss. The affect in the UK resulted in the trouble in obtaining mortgages ; house monetary values fell and the state entered what is considered the worst recession since the Great Depression of 1929. In June 2010, elections were held in the UK and the Coalition Government ( Conservative and Liberal Democrats ) came into power with a shortage of ?155 billion one of the worst shortages as a per centum of GDP in the universe ( The Telegraph, 19/2/10 ) . The new Government decided on severe steps to cut down the state s shortage and in October 2010, the alliance s comprehensive disbursement reappraisal ( CSR ) was published. Equally shortly as the cuts were announced, several taking homelessness charities urged the Government to rethink the cuts to the benefits budget as they feared the consequence it would hold on the vulnerable and declared that the CSR is a catastrophe for the really people ; who are most deserving of the Governments support ( BBC, 22/10/10 ) . This essay will endeavor to discourse the impact of the late elected alliance authorities on the homeless and those administrations that help and back up them. Since the debut of the Homelessness Act ( 2002 ) , there has been a dramatic decrease in the figure of homelessness applications made to local councils in England. Likewise, the lessening seen in Wales has been since the debut of the Welsh Assembly Governments revised National Homelessness Strategy in 2005. The impermanent adjustment provided to the homeless which are usually in bed and breakfasts and inns have been reduced by the Government and since 2002 the preferable method has now been to utilize the private sector. In add-on, the 2006 Homelessness Order introduced a set of criterions for impermanent adjustment and whether the adjustment was suited to run into the demands of the person/s, nevertheless this has farther added to the addition in private sector leasing. ( Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2009, online ) . Although the figure of homeless have reduced with the debut of policies, schemes and Acts, it has still been left largely to the 3rd sector, and the funders of the charities, to go on presenting front line services that support vulnerable people who find themselves trapped in the revolving door of homelessness . There has besides been a dramatic betterment in the handiness of services that have ensured that the most vulnerable people in society are supported and which facilitate people in developing their accomplishments that will enable them to construct a better life for themselves. Agencies such as Shelter, Crisis and Sitra, and many other voluntary and community sector organsations around the UK have ensured that support has been available for people to assist them settle into lasting places, maintain their occupancy ; happen employment ; manage fundss and reconstruct their assurance. Assorted charities such as Turnaround and A Chance 2 Work have taken on the function of suppl ying preparation ; assisting people with procuring suited adjustment ; signposting them onto bureaus where they can farther develop their accomplishments and besides frequently supplying a Centre where people can run into, be active, and have a sense of community ( Homeless Link, online, 2010 ) . Additionally Shelter support a figure of voluntary undertakings, ( such as Fab Pad and Starter Packs both in Scotland ) , which work with the homeless and besides supply advice, information and protagonism to people in lodging demand and indefatigably run to stop homelessness ( Shelter, 2010 ) . However the CSR has now influenced cardinal authorities support which in bend has affected local authorization ( LA ) support ; private sector lodging ; the lodging market reclamation and decreased support for registered societal landlords. Changes to lodging benefits, with caps on payments to be introduced, eligibility standards and proposed alterations to societal lodging term of office and loss of secure support for lodging plants all have changing deductions harmonizing to LA disbursement programs. These may include rent additions for societal renters ; reduced entree to LA equity release merchandises ; less suppport for traveling and increased force per unit area on twosomes and individual older people to travel out of household sized places across term of office. It is argued that these severe steps will probably coerce households from their places and metropoliss, into debt, onto the street and could do 1000s of people to be made homeless in the UK ( Cocks, Care and Repair, 20 10 ) . The National Housing Federation ( NHF ) claim that decreases in payments for people claiming Jobseekers Allowance could go forth a big figure of the 4.7 million claiming lodging benefit with less disposable income to run into the cost of necesseties ( such as nutrient and public-service corporations ) which could take to a steep rise in evictions and up to 202,000 people losing their places, despite what the Prime Minister says ( BBC, 04/07/10 ) . Although it sounds sensible that individual people under 35 on lodging benefit will non be able to acquire adjustment on their ain, it will be hard for people such as domestic force victims to portion houses with others. Natalie Peart ( 2010 ) points out in the November issue of the Pavement that it is a strong possibility that after the immense stairss which Glasgow City council has taken to better impermanent adjustment by traveling people from out-of-date inns into supported occupancies in existent places could all but disappear and the big homeless inns could return because of the cuts in benefits and allowances. In add-on, Murray ( Libdem, 2010 ) states that the complex agreements that have changed sing the principal of the computation of lodging benefits will go forth many people with less benefit to afford the rent in private sector places and will further ensue in many going homeless. He goes on to reason that unless more low-cost places are built with the right substructure and integrated into bing communities, so many people will be left behind. The consequence of the current alliance authorities s policies will intend more overcrowding, more wretchedness and more people kiping on our streets ( Libdemvoice, online, 2010 ) . Although Shelter welcomes the Governments proclamation that the homelessness and Supporting Peoples ( SP ) grants have been left untasted, it is to be remembered that the SP budget was once pealing fenced, but lost its protection in 2009 and can still be raided by other council sections. They further argue that these grants merely meet the demands of the people who are in the worst state of affairss and does non assist the 1000000s of people who already face the on-going battle to happen and maintain a nice low-cost place, particularly with the rise in unemployment and autumn in disposable income ( Shelter, 2010 ) . Cirencester Housing for Young People have already lost their SP support and this raises the inquiry whether the charity will last ( Homeless Link, online, 2010 ) . Kent Council for illustration has admitted that it is trusting to do significant nest eggs when they re-tend the SP contracts and there are rumors that the figure of SP contracts will be dropped from 72 to 22 w hen the re-tendering procedure Begins ( Inside Housing, online, 2010 ) . As LA s have had their portion of grant support badly cut from cardinal authorities, funding grants usually given to the 3rd sector have been either significantly reduced or withdrawn. This in bend has caused redundancies or working hours being reduced in frontline staff and is impacting how charities are able to assist those that are either at hazard of being homeless or are stateless. The lodging charity Sitra advised that a figure of governments have already implemented terrible decreases to disbursement on lodging related support ( Sitra, online, 2010 ) and harmonizing to Mr Sinclair ( main executive of homelessness charity Broadway ) many charities are being asked by the LA s to cut down the cost of the service by 10 15 % with a intimation that if they are unable to, the charity could be dropped from the contract and the service put out to tender. This would intend that smaller charities which are non in a stable fiscal place would hold to shut if they cut monetary values on bi ng contracts or lose out to cheaper commands. The charity Framework obviously states that the disbursement cuts will impact them greatly. They already have a immense waiting list and they are unable to, at present, do plenty for stateless people with farther support cuts. The loss of staff and the possible closing of the Centre will intend that local homeless people will hold nowhere to travel ( Framework, online, 2010 ) . Even local administrations such as the Citizens Advice Bureaux, Opening Doors, Warrington Community Law Centre and Age Concern Mid Mersey are already covering with an tremendous work load, which has meant working beyond their capacity and, since the CSR, has seen a immense addition in the figure of people through their doors. Without the administrations that provide advice, information, security and support for people to travel into their ain place, enable them to populate independently and guarantee that they do non go homeless once more, many people that 3rd sector bureaus presently support will stop up bac k on the street. Harmonizing to the Conservative Blueprint for Undertaking Homelessness ( 2008 ) , the Conservative Party was committed to undertaking homelessness in society and understand that in order to decently turn to this issue we must travel beyond covering with it strictly as a job of lodging and alternatively accept the multi-faceted nature of homelessness . As portion of the solution, all relevant Whitehall sections including Housing, Work and Pensions, Health and Justice and Defence would be turn toing the issue of homelessness. Similarly the Broad Democrats housing and homelessness pronunciamento included providing much needed aid to those who are fighting at the borders of society by making 1000s of occupations and supplying much needed low-cost lodging to do a existent difference to those who do non hold shelter. The pronunciamento stated that protecting and assisting vulnerable people would stay at the top of their docket ( Broad Democrats, online, 2008 ) . However one time the CSR was announced, it became clear that the rough budget cuts might non guarantee that homelessness remains a precedence on the docket when, for illustration, the disposal budget for most sections was to be slashed by 33 -35 % ( HM Treasury, 2010 ) . Campbell Robb, main executive of the lodging and homeless charity Shelter argues that a sequence of authoritiess has failed to turn to our lodging crisis and today s proclamations suggest the alliance has steadfastly joined them in denying duty for an full coevals s ability to entree decent, secure, low-cost lodging . He continued to state that it was a immense blow to see that lodging which was one of the most basic demands for every individual individual in the UK was confronting some of the biggest cuts in the CSR ( Daily Mirror, 21/10/10 ) . The significant lessening in support for lodging will go forth 100s of 1000s of people on the waiting lists for a nice place. New council house renters will hold to pay well more with rents lifting to 80 % of the market rate and with merely 150,000 new places being built over the following four old ages, warnings that the figure of stateless people will lift hold been repeated by taking charities ( Daily Mirror, 21/10/10 ) . Although the authorities has committed to constructing 150,000 low-cost places, this is about a cut of 30 % from current degrees. The mark set by the authorities of 3 million new places by 2020 is improbable to be met as it means 240,000 places should be built every twelvemonth something that has non been achieved since the early 1990 s and is non on the current docket ( Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2009 ) . Mr Robb ( NCH, 2010 ) criticised Mr Osborne s opinion on lodging, adding that the proposed figure of up to 150,000 low-cost places over four old ages repres ents less than a 3rd of what this state desperately requires to convey the lodging system from its articulatio genuss. However constructing new places will non work out the homelessness crisis or even stop the ceaseless lodging demand in Britain it is far more complex than that. We are still confronting an addition in birth and divorce rates, addition in length of service, people traveling in and out of institutions ( such as prisons, infirmaries, psychiatric arrangements and immature people go forthing attention ) , increased Numberss of refugees and refuge searchers and in-migration from states within and outside of the European Union all continue to be lending factors to homelessness. Angela Kail ( 2010, online ) discussed the impact of the CSR and the 7 % cuts to LA s on charities working in the community sector and argued that the cuts will spell the terminal for local community charities . Many charities will confront closing or cutbacks and will hold to curtail the type, and degree, of services that they can offer ; the figure of people that they can assist and back up, and causes service suppliers to be unable to do long-run programs. Robert McGeachy ( NCH ) argued in 2006 that the 3rd sector are progressively supplying more intensive support over a longer period when demands are non being met elsewhere, nevertheless services being provided will go limited due to miss of support and this is more of a world in today s economic clime ( NCH, on-line 2006 ) . The demand for voluntary sector services will doubtless increase greatly, merely as budgets are cut or affected by new support governments and the homelessness sector will hold to believe about how it can supply more support to vulnerable people with less. However, a study has shown that 63 % of community and voluntary sector administrations plan to cut staff Numberss over the following three months which will do this proposal even more of a challenge ( CVS, online, 15/10/10 ) . Additionally services that are thought to be nice-to-have such as those that develop community development, those that work towards battling fiscal exclusion and societal isolation and those that are similar to others that are being delivered by other homeless services suppliers will non last. Partnership and collaborative working between administrations is now more needful than of all time and it may be the lone manner some charities are able to last to go on back uping vulnerable people. The support cuts are likely to do extremist alterations and charities will hold to confront shriveling in size or unifying with larger charities that are financially more unafraid otherwise they will merely neglect one time they have run out of options. Cathy Pharoah ( 3/11/10 ) argues that this will be the clip when many 3rd sector administrations will necessitate aid with these alterations such as covering with the practicalities of undertaking or closings, redundancies and service reconfiguration. However with the closing of the Regional Development Agencies, and the decreases in Cabinet Office support for substructure organic structures, this aid will non probably be available and the extremist alterations will be even more distressing for some. Jeremy Swain ( main executive of Thames Reach ) suggests that the most of import inquiry of all is will stateless people besides end up paying a rough monetary value? ( Inside Housing, online, 2010 ) No affair who pays the monetary value, it is argued that the budget cuts were necessary in order to cut down the state s public shortage. Grant Shapps ( Minister for Housing and Local Government ) says that by non doing the difficult determinations in order to cut down the shortage, mortgage rates would lift still higher and do houses less low-cost. The involvement refunds on ?1 trillion of debt would take money off from frontline services, cut down future investing and finally stultify the UK. With the loss of about half a million public-sector occupations some say closer to 750,000 ( Sunday Times, 2010 ) , it is possibly fortunate that the alliance Government decided to protect the Homelessness grant by puting ?400 million, and that the decreases to the SP programme has been minimised, with ?6.5bn investing secured over the following four old ages. The Government is cognizant that low-cost lodging for those who can non afford to run into their ain lodging demands remains indispens able and a more flexible system of low-cost lodging will be adopted to run into the different demands of people. Simply put, given the immense force per unit areas on public fundss and the economic fortunes that we face, methods to do limited public investing travel farther demand to be found. Despite the fiscal restraints, the Government will still be puting about ?6.5 billion of the taxpayer s money into lodging, with ?4.5 billion to fund new low-cost places. They besides intend to supply ?200m so that the Mortgage Rescue strategy can remain unfastened to back up vulnerable householders threatened with repossession and a farther ?100m to convey empty places back in usage ( Shapps, 2010 ) . However will this be adequate to cut down the figure of people who are already stateless, those at hazard of going homeless in the hereafter whilst still work towards eliminating homelessness? Since the CSR was announced, everyone interviewed by the BBC seems to be in favor of the budget cuts every bit long as it does non impact him or her. The rough world is that for the following few old ages, everyone will be affected in one-way or another and it is non the first clip that something has happened, such as the election of a new authorities ( albeit it be a alliance ) that will impact attacks and policies in topographic point with respects to undertaking the lodging and homelessness jobs that Britain has faced over the last 20 old ages. The CSR will decidedly hold an inauspicious affect on the full state and harmonizing to the homelessness charities, more so on those that are vulnerable, homeless or at hazard of going homeless. Charities that work with and for older people, kids, carers, young person wrongdoers, ex-service work forces and adult females, those with mental wellness issues merely to call a few are all stating the same and contending for their ain corner nami ng on the Government to rethink the disbursement reappraisal as the cuts will be impacting their most vulnerable service users. Which are the few that need to be sacrificed to maintain the state from crumpling? We may non be ready for the disbursement cuts and revenue enhancement additions, but we now have no pick and something demands to be done to acquire the state off from the threshold of bankruptcy. WORD COUNT 2961

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Myself Included

Myself Included Myself Included Myself Included By Maeve Maddox A reader questions my use of the phrase â€Å"myself included† in the following extract from a post on who versus that: Many speakers, myself included, feel that who is usually the first choice when the antecedent is human, but recognize that its use is a stylistic choice and not a matter of rule. Sometimes that may be the better choice. Says the reader: I’m wondering about your use of ‘myself’. I would have assumed it should be ‘me included’. Or have I misunderstood the reflexive pronouns? I’m curious because it’s one of my pet peeves when someone ends an email with ‘if you have any questions, you can refer to myself.’ The reader has not misunderstood the general rules for the reflexive pronouns. 1. A reflexive pronoun is used as a direct object when the object is the same as the subject of the verb: â€Å"I cut myself shaving again.† 2. The reflexive pronoun is used as an indirect object when the indirect object is the same as the subject of the verb: â€Å"She bought herself a new car.† 3. The reflexive pronoun is used as the object of a preposition when the object refers to the subject of the clause: â€Å"My son built our deck by himself.† Note: The phrase â€Å"by + reflexive pronoun† shows that someone did something alone and/or without any help. The same meaning is conveyed when the reflexive pronoun alone is placed at the end of a sentence: â€Å"I baked all the cookies myself.† 4. The reflexive pronoun is used to emphasize the person or thing referred to: â€Å"The binding itself is worth  £50.† Note: This use of the reflexive pronoun is especially common when the person referred to is famous or powerful: â€Å"The Queen herself wrote a note of condolence to her butler.† The most common errors made with reflexive pronouns are the sort the reader refers to, the use of a reflexive pronoun when the context calls for a plain personal pronoun: INCORRECT: If you have any questions, you can refer to myself. CORRECT: If you have any questions, you can refer to me. The error here is using a reflexive pronoun as the object of a preposition that does not refer to the subject of the clause (you). Other common errors include the following: INCORRECT: Jack and myself traveled to Greece this summer. CORRECT: Jack and I traveled to Greece this summer. The error is in using the reflexive pronoun as the subject of a verb. INCORRECT: When you give out the presents, don’t forget Margie and myself. CORRECT: When you give out the presents, don’t forget Margie and me. The error here is using reflexive myself as the object of the verb forget. Although the phrases â€Å"myself included† or â€Å"including myself†seem to defy the rules they have enjoyed a long history of use by reputable writers. The Ngram Viewer indicates that â€Å"including myself† is far more common than â€Å"including me† in printed books. A Web search for â€Å"including me† brings 617,000 results; â€Å"including myself† brings 3,890,000 results. An article by linguist James Harbeck lists fourteen examples of exceptions to the rules. Here are three of them: You seem like a better version of myself. (object of preposition) There are two others here besides myself. (object of preposition) Myself, as director here, will cut the ribbon. (subject of sentence) Sometimes â€Å"including me† is the obvious choice, but in other contexts, a writer may prefer â€Å"including myself.† Compare: Everyone received a lavish gift, including me. Many scientists, including myself, found the film outrageous in its inaccuracies. The best advice about the use of reflexive pronouns is to master the rules, but to remain aware that sometimes â€Å"nonstandard† myself may be more idiomatic than me. â€Å"If you have any questions, you can refer to myself† is unquestionably nonstandard, but in contexts in which a speaker or writer is espousing an opinion shared by others, â€Å"myself included† and â€Å"including myself† are established idioms. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Spelling Test 18 Types of Parenthetical PhrasesCaptain vs. Master

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Absurdist Performance of the Volkswagen Blue Motion Essay

Absurdist Performance of the Volkswagen Blue Motion - Essay Example Every component of this piece plays a role in creating the intended image about the Volkswagen model. The attendant is the most visible element of the advert. The tears flowing from his eye show that he is crying. He is wearing an overall and standing next to a gas station. From this, it is evident that heat work but sad. Next to him is a fuel gauge hanging on a tree. The gauge is indicating that the car is still full tank (Volkswagen Advertising). There is a Volkswagen symbol below the tree with the full fuel tank. This points out that the gauge shown belongs to the Blue Motion car. A car needs more gas when the gauge shows that there is a reduction in the fuel level. Since this is not the case with the one shown, it can be deduced that the Blue motion car does not need more fuel. From the two images, sadness might have been caused by the state of the gas business. The two visual representations demonstrates and supports the meaning being passed that the car does not use a lot of f uel as its consumption is extremely low. It complements the text below it which describes the car as one with superior performance by showing its efficiency in terms of fuel use. Car buyers are keen on this aspect and this may call them into buying into the idea of having the Volkswagen model. The weltering tanker also passes a certain message. As the tanker carrying fuel to the gas station moves, it leaves behind a cloud of smoke. The smoke from the tanker has covered all the trees left behind it with none of them having any green component. This image has been used to support the main idea of the piece. When one compares the trees behind the tanker and that holding the fuel gauge, a clear difference is seen. Below the fuel gauge is a â€Å"shell† (Volkswagen Advertising). While the tanker leaves behind a trail of weltering smoke, car whose fuel gauge is shown only leaves a single shell as the product of the combustion.

Friday, October 18, 2019

PeopleSoft State of art Part of my thesis Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

PeopleSoft State of art Part of my - Thesis Example se PeopleTools 8.50 and PeopleSoft Enterprise Learning Management 9.1 and PeopleSoft Enterprise Portal 9.1, Oracle claims to offer the customers a platform to provide improved employee productivity and better performance. One of the differentiating features of this software is its Web 2 capabilities. Besides this enhanced ability, the software also has 300 new Web services and around 200 industry specific improvements ( A summary of the various applications shows how these tools help in business improvement. A very interesting feature of HCM is that it facilitates the alignment of individual goals with those of the organization. This is achieved by ensuring that each business goal is extrapolated to the individual employee goal sheets. It even helps identify the succession plan for the organization by identifying the talent pool through the performance sheets and matching them with the key skill set at the various hierarchical levels. The Web 2.0 capabilities of PeopleSoft Enterprise help employees engage with each other through chats, wiki, social and knowledge networking forums. The software’s MIS generation features help analyze performance and productivity and thus enable leaders to chalk out future course of action. Its ability to talk to previously released versions of applications helps save its customer acquisition costs as there is no need to replace the previous applications to ena ble installation of the new ones. This helps save money on account of software acquisition and installation and training costs. With country specific HR and payroll programs the software is a global platform which can be used even in countries like China and Argentina. It also has educative and research oriented capabilities along with provisions for industries like retail, public sector and professional services. In the ensuing sections we will be discussing the various features that the software provides which enable a smooth running of the various HR functions

Magnolia Therapeutic Solutions Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Magnolia Therapeutic Solutions - Case Study Example Question 1 How could your decision be compared to the board’s decision? Why did you make this decision? What effect did organizational infrastructure and culture have on your decision? Definitely, I would not approve the budget. In the first place, I would find considerable support of my decision prior to my approval of it. There must be reliable references or supporting evidences needed in the first place in order to justify my decision. A budget needs to have substantial references or supporting facts in order not to have a shortfall or over calculation in the future. Thus, it should guide and even predict future actions or moves (Hutton & Phillips, 2009). In the case of Mary Stewart’s decision, she failed to consider the point that her assumption would be subjected to environmental factors. Being confident that the government would renew its grant given to Magnolia in 2001, Mary assumed that the budget in 2002 would be substantially higher as compared to that of the previous year. Furthermore, she also failed to consider the ailing economy and so was able to address the steeper demands with regard to the development department. This would incur additional cost which eventually led to having one third of her staff laid off; it had negative impact on the remaining staff and organization that could cause stagnation of the organization in years to come. With the kind of decision that I have taken, I could have probably saved one third of my staff. The point is I would not have focused on giving substantial budget for the development department. This has to be considered in the first place because overspending would not be the right approach, especially in a poor economic condition. My decision would remarkably maintain the potential teamwork at Magnolia because everyone would be encouraged to potentially use and maximize only what was available. Question 2 What do you think were the main causes behind the problems that Magnolia ultimately suffered? What would you have done differently to avoid those problems? In the first place, considering that Magnolia was not a profit organization, there was a clear evidence of poor financial management within the organization. This becomes clear when one looks at the way the budget was emancipated in 2002. Lack of financial knowledge was one of the main reasons. This eventually led to poor organizational structure, which also resulted in lacking the ability to handle financial resources in the best way possible. Furthermore, Mary was made assumptions without any reliable basis. In other words, Mary herself lacked managerial skills in handling the organization, particularly within the context of planning strategy. As reflected on how the planned budget in 2002 turned out, Mary simply was missing the point on how to efficiently handle the financial resources. If I were Mary, I should have hired a financial consultant who could give me professional advice on what to include in my budget plan for 2002. Furthermore, knowing this would help me to come up with good plans in the future. The point in here is that Mary’s organization was still moving forward closer to financial stability. In other words, this has to remain her critical area of consideration prior to displaying any ambitions as to other future plans. As for me, since the organization was already doing great in its service and became popular in its field, financial

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Institutional Analysis Merrill Lynch Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Institutional Analysis Merrill Lynch - Essay Example The organizational structure of the company is a functional structure .This is because it is divided into three businesses. The business segments of Merrill Lynch involve Corporate and Institutional Client Group, Private Client Group and Merrill Lynch Investment managers businesses. The Corporate And Institutional Client Group is a business segment that provides its clients with comprehensive investment banking, financing and related products and services to the corporations, institutional clients and to the sovereign government throughout the world. The activities of the segment are carried out through the network of subsidiaries such as Merrill lynch, Pierce, Fenner and smith incorporation and through other subsidiaries that are outside the United States of America. Private Client Group is a business segment that provides its products and services that are the accumulation and management of wealth. It also involves brokerage, dealer and related activities. It also deals with the provision of banking, retirement, investment and custody services, business financial services, trust services as well as the mortgage lending and related activities. Merrill Lynch Investment is a segment that deals with the rationalized asset management activities that are conducted through the MLIM brand name which is a principal subsidiary that is involved in the investment business. Its assets amounted to over $557 billion as at 2007 (Grant and Neupert 175). The financial services of the company are provided to the clients through using its subsidiaries and affiliates that participate with the facilitation and consummation of the single transactions of the company. This organizational structure of the company ensures that the services of the company are delivered to the clients so as to enhance its growth and development. Organizational chart refers to the graphical representation of an organization that shows its hierarchical authority and relationship that exists between the department and jobs carried out within the organization. The structural segment of Merrill Lynch involves implementing an administrative structure of the company that assists the company in solving some of the problems that it is faced with. The mananagement of the company come up with the goals of the company. Carrying out an external macro environment analysis, defining the structures and the lines of authority are the basic reasons for undertaking the four framework analysis. Finance, marketing, administration, human resources and the research & development department are the main functional processes of the company. Finance department is concerned with all the financial transactions of the business, thus all the expenses and incomes of the company are recorded here. Measurement of the financial performance of the company is done in this department. The functions of controlling and monitoring of all the finances of the company are done in this department and also making sure that enough money is available for the recurrent expenditures of the company. Financial

Compare and contrast the images of kyoto in the immediate past -war Essay

Compare and contrast the images of kyoto in the immediate past -war era (1950s) - Essay Example During the World War, Kyoto was fortunately spared of being hit badly by nuclear weapons and arms. However, there have been a number of changes within the city since the past. This paper thus helps to provide an analysis of Kyoto in the year 1950 as compared to present day Kyoto. Taking a look at the demographics within the city, the population of the city has decreased at least three fold in the past fifty years. Before the war, Kyoto held the position of being called the fourth most populated city in Japan however, a present day analysis shows that as compared to the past, the population of Kyoto has fallen bringing the city to a seventh position within Japan. Culture is a very inherent part of the city and has become one of its testimonials over time. There are a number of temples and shrines all around the city that were built in praise of Japanese emperors for the purpose of praying as well as carrying out festivals, ceremonies and other traditions. In the modern day period, the city is sprawling with a hip urban population, skyscrapers and cultural hotspots as compared to the private houses and rural migrated population that had formed a part of the city. Old buildings and temples like the Kiyomizudera, Kyoto Imperial Palace and Fushimi Inari have all been restored for the purpose of retaining the cultural past as well as opening up to a level of tourism. (Top 10 Sights of Kyoto, Japan) Change and development thus, in the present has been for the better more than for the worse; more urbanisation has led to better prospects for advancement in the field of information and technology for the city as well. A significant change may also be witnessed in the night life of the city; however, the use of Geishas for entertainment (a very renowned aspect in Japan) still continues to thrive in Kyoto just like it used to in the past. Of course, the sense of dressing and portraying oneself has undergone a little change keeping in mind the western culture and influx of people from all over the world. The city has been able to attract a great amount of tourism as well because of its famous shrines and temples that were built in the past. Some of them, like the Kamigamo Shrine and the Nijo Castle have gained UNESCO World Heritage Sites status and thus are protected by the UN. The economy of the country has also improved for the better because of a shift towards the tertiary sector. Most large technology related companies in the world like Nintendo, Intelligent Systems, Rohm and Horiba have formed a part of the skyline of the city with time. These changes have helped the city to boost its growth. However, at the same time, a vast amount of importance has still been kept aside for traditional crafts and the agricultural sector which has seen a lot of improvement since the past due to better equipments and implements in the field of technology and irrigation. The infrastructure of the city has developed a great deal as well; if one was to compare the c ity on the basis of its looks and image with respect to the post war era in 1950s and present day Kyoto, one would be able to witness a vast amount of change. Railways and subways have been set up all over with the Kyoto station being the central portal from which lines now connect every city around the country. One of the biggest achievements in the field of transport is also the high speed rails which have changed the look of the city completely. Despite these many changes the city still continues

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Institutional Analysis Merrill Lynch Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Institutional Analysis Merrill Lynch - Essay Example The organizational structure of the company is a functional structure .This is because it is divided into three businesses. The business segments of Merrill Lynch involve Corporate and Institutional Client Group, Private Client Group and Merrill Lynch Investment managers businesses. The Corporate And Institutional Client Group is a business segment that provides its clients with comprehensive investment banking, financing and related products and services to the corporations, institutional clients and to the sovereign government throughout the world. The activities of the segment are carried out through the network of subsidiaries such as Merrill lynch, Pierce, Fenner and smith incorporation and through other subsidiaries that are outside the United States of America. Private Client Group is a business segment that provides its products and services that are the accumulation and management of wealth. It also involves brokerage, dealer and related activities. It also deals with the provision of banking, retirement, investment and custody services, business financial services, trust services as well as the mortgage lending and related activities. Merrill Lynch Investment is a segment that deals with the rationalized asset management activities that are conducted through the MLIM brand name which is a principal subsidiary that is involved in the investment business. Its assets amounted to over $557 billion as at 2007 (Grant and Neupert 175). The financial services of the company are provided to the clients through using its subsidiaries and affiliates that participate with the facilitation and consummation of the single transactions of the company. This organizational structure of the company ensures that the services of the company are delivered to the clients so as to enhance its growth and development. Organizational chart refers to the graphical representation of an organization that shows its hierarchical authority and relationship that exists between the department and jobs carried out within the organization. The structural segment of Merrill Lynch involves implementing an administrative structure of the company that assists the company in solving some of the problems that it is faced with. The mananagement of the company come up with the goals of the company. Carrying out an external macro environment analysis, defining the structures and the lines of authority are the basic reasons for undertaking the four framework analysis. Finance, marketing, administration, human resources and the research & development department are the main functional processes of the company. Finance department is concerned with all the financial transactions of the business, thus all the expenses and incomes of the company are recorded here. Measurement of the financial performance of the company is done in this department. The functions of controlling and monitoring of all the finances of the company are done in this department and also making sure that enough money is available for the recurrent expenditures of the company. Financial

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Understanding Children's Behavior Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Understanding Children's Behavior - Essay Example Understanding Children’s Behavior Any growing child needs basic in order to adapt to the tenets of this life. In today’s schools, students with behavioral, emotional, and social difficulties have graced the current educational backyards and posed a great deal of problem to the teaching staff (McCall, 2004). Are these maniac types of students subject to rejection in schools or is it a challenge the modern educational system should address amicably? The truth though is that children’s with special emotional needs have come as the problem of the day in many schools. In support of such students and their parents, the government educational agencies have taken it their mandate as teachers’ response to such behaviors deems not very effective (Cook, 2006). These students’ have to be included in the mainstream schools. Their stay sees unrelenting application of palatable government adoptive policies, which has been termed as Inclusive Schooling. The facilitators of these policies are the teachers as they form the direct conduct with these behavioral kids. The beliefs, values, and attitudes of the teachers are much more of a necessity since the fate of such a kid is in his hands. This paper examines what balance is necessary between the practitioners and the sect of students with physical and medical needs, to those with moderate learning difficulties in mainstream schools.... With everyday interaction, there have come a number of issues destabilizing the professionalism of teachers. The effect of dealing with such students can as well affect the production of any professional teacher. These students pose as a problem and much of time consumed in addressing their behaviors. This is an expense if there are other kids who are morally correct and ought to learn with little distraction (McCall, 2004). Teacher perception, feeling of frustration and mistrust between a teacher and such a distractive kid are some nuggets that crop-up in a professional in encounter with such students. Every child develops with ambitions especially in early days of schooling (Frederic, 2011). According to Kolb & Hanley-Maxwell (2003), a teacher who handles a large group of intellectual diverse kids knows exactly the progress and capability of each child. If a child or a student develops some uncharacteristic behaviors, the teachers approach to the student and the class is as well af fected. This is perception. It is in line with the teachers’ professional teaching and helps make the learning process a success. How a teacher perceives a child generally depends on his conduct and behaviors. Professionally, teacher perception of school and general life pegs on a motivational plat-form. His perception encourages the livelihood of the students’ school life. The teacher to greater extend pose as parental guiders unto to the students. The students in return create an emotional attachment especially if the teacher has an interesting charisma (Vulliamy & Webb, 2003). The teacher perception on his students is paramount to the role he performs to academically guiding the students. It posses a challenge if any student with

Monday, October 14, 2019

Media studies †Life on Mars Essay Example for Free

Media studies – Life on Mars Essay How does life on mars (2006) use visual codes, technical, audio and narrative codes to create a sense of excitement and encourage the audience to watch. In this first episode of Life on Mars there are many different codes and conventions used to make this series instantly appealing to the audience. The episode is excellently paced and smartly directed, getting us into 1973 within 10 minutes and introducing new characters effortlessly. Sequence 1 of life on mars gets the audience instantly familiar with the genre, the episode begins with a police car chasing down a suspect which quickly shows us this is a hybrid police crime drama. The diegetic sounds of police sirens and dogs along with the non diegetic music, a heartbeat which is corresponding with Sam the detective in the police car creating suspense as we get a feel for how Sam is feeling as the heartbeat signifies his nerves also introducing the audience to protagonist Sam Tyler, these audio codes add up to create an exciting police chase which again expresses the genre of Life on Mars. Once out of the car Sam is forced to chase his primary suspect down an ally way in a council estate in the city giving the audience a feel for the setting. The music isnt as dramatic while the chase is happening but speeds up during more dramatic parts of the chase which creates suspense. Cinema-verte is used when filming the chase which makes the audience feel almost part of the chase, this entertaining filming technique and creative use of music makes Life on Mars exciting to the audience creating enigma and encouraging them to watch on. This chase takes us up to Colin Raimes arrest bringing us to sequence 2. In sequence 2 Sams colleague and girlfriend, Maya, are interviewing suspect Colin Raimes. Sam and Maya facing Colin and his lawyers, which creates tension between these two sets of people. During the interview there is a close up of Colin Raimes which engages the audience creating tension and increasing the viewers curiosity as to what this suspect has done and makes them wonder has he done it or not? The diegetic recording sound in the background shows the viewers the interview is being recorded and shows the viewers the seriousness of the situation, the room is dark with little light which creates a professional mood, the dark setting is a technique used to scare the suspect in to talking, perfect for the situation. The narrative codes in this sequence reveal allot about Colin Raimes as he gets upset by the images he is being shown, we learn Colin sees a psychiatrist and his lawyers talk about how kids would throw fireworks at him on his estate. This is evidence to show that Colin is vulnerable and is possibly mad, the audience may take pity on him or take a different view on the suspect, this makes the viewers curious and increases their want to watch on. After the interview in sequence 3, Maya isnt done with the suspect and decides to follow him on her own, only to be kidnapped. Once Maya is kidnapped Sam becomes sad and heads out looking for her, there is a close up of Sams face and he is distressed with tears running from his eyes. This visual codes will make the audience feel sympathetic towards Sam and shows us perhaps he is feeling stronger than just friendship for Maya. Sams nerves eventually get the better of him when he has to stop the car to refresh himself, standing there half-heartedly he says into himself, The world is a scary place again this shows the audience he is thinking about Maya and wants to find her increasing their sympathy for him and overall making the viewers want to continue to watch to see the conclusion. The different audio codes used express Sams feeling for Maya as the non diegetic music plays softly whilst he cries and thinks about her, this corresponds with the visual codes creating a sympathetic feel for the protagonist making the audience pity him. Sam is unexpectedly struck by a speeding vehicle which brings me to sequence four. Sam is struck very unexpectedly and this may have came as a shock to the audience, the accident is very unexpected and this is done deliberately to shock the audience as this scene is key to the viewers as it is where the storyline unfolds as after this it is based in 1973, where Sam time travels back in time. The diegetic sounds used are very impacting, when the car hits Sam, initially there is a loud sound to signify he has been hit, after this all that can be heard is silence which corresponds with how the audience will feel, as they will be shocked at what has just happened. This creates enigma and increases the viewers curiosity to keep watching and they are now introduced to how Life on Mars is going to take place. (back in time) will Sam be okay? what will happen next? are few of the questions the audience will be asking making them exciting and encouraging them to keep watching. Once Sam is hit and the audience are aware of what happened there is a close up of him laying vulnerably on the ground, this close up shot shows his eyes, wide open but yet not moving, with only police sirens and a heartbeat which is corresponding with Sams as he lays on the tarmac, creating tension and making the audience question if he is even alive. This close up then changes to a high shot as the camera slowly moves up, looking down on Sam which shows how empty the road is, no traffic just him. This suggests a change in time and expresses to the audience what has happened introducing them to 1973. These visual and technical codes all raise the audiences awareness causing them to ask questions and want to know the conclusion. Sequence five is the most important as, Sam wakes up to find himself in 1973, complete with 1970s era clothing and an 8-track playing Life on Mars in a car. Dazed and confused, Sam wanders back to the police precinct he works at, only to find it filled with cigarette-smoking, gum-chewing strangers hes never seen before. The music is significant as before the crash David Bowies 1970s song Life on Mars was playing on Sams ipod in the car. This is strange as he has travelled back in time to when this song was just out and extremely popular. Sams feeling are conveyed in different ways, with voices in his head from when he was a boy repeating, where are you? as he wakes up in a forest, obviously not where he was before. Creating enigma for the audience and making them aware of the time change increasing their excitement and want to continue watching. When Sam stands up in 1973, with no clue as to where he is the camera is low angled and is circling him while Life on Mars plays which really creates a confusing atmosphere showing that Sam does not know what is going on. This technical camera work helps to express Sams feelings and shows the audience a broader understanding of whats going on. Everything has changed in Sams world, The set designs and costumes effectively evoke the era, as well as the grittiness of the run-down neighbourhood and police precinct. Everything feels straight out of the 70s, from the clothing to the cars to the horridly ugly decorating in Sams apartment. Throughout the episode, Sam hears hospital noises and doctor voices and at one point sees a person on late night TV talking like a doctor describing Sam being in a coma. Sam becomes increasingly convinced that he truly is in a coma, and that none of this world is real. he believes it is all part of his imagination. These are some of the ways in which Sam portrays his feelings to the audience during this sequence. Which allows the audience to get to know Sam and begin to have a feel for his character encouraging them to continue to watch Life on Mars. Later Sam meets a young police officer named Annie Cartwright who he begins to open up to and express his opinion and at one point tells her I had an accident and when I woke up, I was here. Only here is 33 years in the past. Now, that either makes me a time-traveller, a lunatic, or Im lying in a hospital bed in 2006 and none of this is real. This quotation of what he says gives the audience insight into how he feels about the whole situation, this again allows the audience to engage with Sam and feel what he is going through, the audience will grow a certain like for Sam and this creates a sense of excitement and encourages the audience to continue to watch Life on Mars.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

A Study On Internet Banking In Nepal

A Study On Internet Banking In Nepal This research is the effort for study and analyzing the Internet Banking in Nepal Bank Limited. Internet Banking can be defined as the use of technology to communicate instructions to and receive information from a financial institution where an account is held. Internet Banking includes the systems that enable financial institution customers, individuals or businesses, to access accounts, transact business or obtain information on financial products and services through a public or private network, including the Internet. Since the launch of Internet the large planet has become a smaller one. It has rendered enormous impacts on business sectors. Remarkable development in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has introduced a global revolution in banking industry. The global trend in business arena set some challenge that cannot be fulfilled with the help of the traditional banking system. The survey of current banking system in Nepal reveals the fact that it requires rapid modification and adaptation to keep harmony with the world economy business. It becomes more obvious by observing the increased number of customers in some modern bank while others are losing them. The existing banking system in our country is slow and error-prone. In one hand, fails to meet the customers demand and it causes some significant losses both for the banking authority and traders. E-Banking, on the other hand solves the above problems. Furthermore, it opens up some other salient aspects such as increased foreign trade and foreign investment. Most plan allow customers to perform all routine transactions, such as account transfers, balance inquires, bill payments and stop payment requests everything but its very easy to set up an account. We can access our account information anytime day or night and we can do it from anywhere. A few online banks update information in real time, while others do it daily. 1.2 Introduction of Origin and Growth of Bank in Nepal The growth of banking in Nepal is not so long. In comparison with other developing or developed country, the institutional development in banking system of Nepal is far behind. Nepal had to wait for a long time to come to this present banking position. The origin of bank in Nepal and its beginning of growth is controversial. Even though the specific date of the beginning of money and banking deal in Nepal is not obvious, it is speculated that during the reign of the King Manadev, the coin Manank and Gunank during the reign of the King Gunakamadev were in use. After the establishment of Nepal Bank Limited on 30th Karkik, 1994 (1938), modern banking system started in Nepal. Under the Nepal Rastra Bank Act 2012 (1956), Nepal Rastra Bank was established in 2013(1957) Baisakh 14th in Nepal. But this act has been repealed and the Nepal Rastra Bank Act 2058(2002) has been enacted by the parliament. After its establishment, it issued the Nepali notes on 7th Falgon 2016 for the first time. Gradually, bank develop their services in Nepal according to requirement of customers and to compete market so today we can transact via non cash elements : like Internet Banking, Credit Card, ATM Card and SMS banking etc. 1.3 Nepals ICT Background Nations worldwide have recognized development opportunities and challenges of the emerging information age characterized by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). These technologies are driving national development efforts worldwide and a number of countries in both developing and the developed world are exploring ways of facilitating their development process through development, deployment and the exploitation of ICT within their economies and societies. Nepals journey into the world of information technology began some three decades back with the use of IBM 1401 for the population census, 1971. Royal Nepal Academy for Science and Technology (RONAST), for the first time, used the internet. Mercantile Private Limited started email services for commercial purpose in June 1994. In 1995 government purchased the machine for further data processing in the Bureau of Statistics and established a separate organization called Electronic Data Processing Center (EDPC) and after 6 years it converted to National Computer Center (NCC). Government has formed High Level Commission for Information Technology (HLCIT), which is playing the role of facilitator between private and public sector in the development of ICT in Nepal. 1.4 Introduction of Internet Banking Internet banking refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer (PC) or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include wholesale products for corporate customers as well as retail and fiduciary products for consumers. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. Some examples of wholesale products and services include: Cash management. Wire transfer. Automated clearinghouse (ACH) transactions. Bill presentment and payment. Examples of retail and fiduciary products and services include: Balance inquiry. Funds transfer. Downloading transaction information. Bill presentment and payment. Loan applications. Investment activity. Other value-added services. Other Internet banking services may include providing Internet access as an Internet Service Provider (ISP). The OCC has determined that a national bank subsidiary may provide home banking services through an Internet connection to the banks home banking system and, incidental to that service, may also provide Internet access to bank customers using that service. Historically, banks have used information systems technology to process checks (item processing), drive ATM machines (transaction processing), and produce reports (management information systems). In the past, the computer systems that made the information systems operate were rarely noticed by customers. Today, Web sites, electronic mail, and electronic bill presentment and payment systems are an important way for banks to reach their customers. 1.5 Statement of the Problem Establishing Internet Banking infrastructure has been a challenging task for the developing countries like Nepal. In the context of Nepal there are ample of problems in Internet Banking some of them are given below : Computer and Banking Literacy : In aggregate here is low level of IT literacy. Very few people are computer literate in Nepal and very few people understand banking system or banking process even educated people also there. Infrastructure Development : Though banks reach with their services in rural area ISP or NTC services is not available there for internet services and vice versa. Risk Management : In Nepal, Internet Banking is at its infancy right now. However, no Internet Banking frauds have been found yet. Lack of understanding of internet technology may be the reason. But precaution must be taken. In order to mitigate the risks associated with all e-banking businesses, banks should have in place a comprehensive risk management process that assesses risks, control risk exposure and monitors risks. Security : Security of a transaction, authenticity of a deal, identification of a customer etc are important technological and systems issues, which are major sources of concern to e-banking. Customers are afraid from online attack. Various online attacks are also available. 1.6 Objectives of the Study The main objectives of proposed research are to study, analyze and understand the Internet Banking of Nepal Bank Limited. Some of the other objectives are as follows : To identify the problems in existing Internet Banking services of Nepal Are public satisfy or not from Internet banking Services ? If not what will be the effective service delivery mechanism. To identify the prerequisites to get the Internet Banking services The research tell prerequisites to get Internet Banking services (for e.g. Computers, telephones, internet, customer should be account holder of bank) To examine the service delivery of different banks of Nepal The research includes various types of Internet Banking services provided by different banks to general public. 1.7 Scope of the Study The study will be mainly focused on three components of the study area : Social aspects : In social aspect the studied is focus on public participation according to their satisfaction, knowledge, beliefs, values etc. Technical aspects : This aspects is concerned with the technically how to develop system and technology used on projects. Economic aspects : In the economic analysis part, the study will focus on the possible areas of economic development by using this Internet Banking. 1.8 Limitation of the Study This research is the small effort for study and analyzing the Internet Banking services of Nepal which has limited time so it cannot focus on all areas and may not be able to explore many fields. This research work is done within limited time frame during the MBS dissertation. There are so many constraints while doing the work such as inadequate time, load shedding, and resources etc. To understand methodology of Internet Banking service is very difficult because banks only provide surface level of information because of their security concern. In spite of great effort, there are many limitations of this research work. The major limitations are as follows : In the field of E-banking, there are so many arenas like ATM, Tele Banking, Mobile Banking etc. but this research does not focus on all the e-banking services. Research works mainly focus on Internet Banking. Fund transfer is possible within the branch of bank. It means once cannot transfer amount from one bank to another bank. Banks have their own policy but there is no any standard policy for Internet Banking in Nepal. In the field of Internet Banking security is must but this research doe not cover all the aspects of security. General customers and corporate customers of Internet Banking system have same kinds of facilities. 1.9 Organization of the Study This study is organized and decorated in seven chapters. Each chapter and unit will be on a prescribed format of thesis writing to the partial fulfillment of MBS program. Each unit gives the clear picture or roadmap of the study. Chapter One This chapter deals with Introduction of The Study. In this chapter, separated unit for background, significances objective and limitation of the study has mentioned. Chapter Two This chapter focused Review of Literature. In this chapter, various relevant such as different books, journals, article and previous thesis mention has mentioned. Chapter Three Third chapter presented Research Methodology. In this chapter, research design, sources of the data, method of data collection and analysis has mentioned. Chapter Four This chapter deals with Analysis of Internet Banking. This chapter provides the different analysis like strength, weakness, opportunity, threat (SWOT) analysis and feasibility analysis of Internet banking. Chapter Five Fifth chapter deals with Internet Banking Security. Security in Internet Banking comprises both the computer and communication security. Therefore this chapter consist different security principles, cryptographic key management, RAID etc. Chapter Six This chapter focused on System Analysis and design to present the current Internet Banking system. This chapter provides requirement analysis, process modeling, data dictionary, hardware and software requirement to execute program. Chapter Seven Seventh chapter presented with Summary, Conclusions and Recommendation of the Study. 1.10 Research Design There are two types of research approaches qualitative and quantitative. In the quantitative approach results are based on numbers and statistics that are presented in figures, whereas in the qualitative approach where focus lies on describing an event with the use of words. This study is the result of qualitative research using comparative and analytical methods. The comparative research was conducted in two ways : Firstly, the comparison is carried out by investigating the availability of basic services of Internet Banking in different banks of Nepal. Secondly, the comparison is also carried out by investigating the different features offered by banking institutions in Nepal. For that purpose, reviews of website from banks are conducted. Thus to gain practical knowledge of Internet Banking in the Nepali context, this research is conducted as a qualitative study to explore the perception of Internet Banking among Nepali Banks. Hence, the aim is not to make any simplification but instead establish a closer contact with the objectives of prior research which intend to provide us a deeper understanding of the participants attitudes and perceptions. Finally my intention with this research is to understand Internet Banking first describe and explore, find and analysis detailed information about Internet banking services provided by different banks of Nepal so qualitative approach is the most suitable method for my research. 1.11 Source of Data Both primary as well as secondary data have been collected in order to achieve the real and factual result out of this research. All possible and useful data available have been collected. The major sources of data are as follows : a. Primary Source The primary data are collected from primary sources. The primary sources of data are the opinion survey through questionnaire, field visit and information received from the respondents. Some of the information was also collected from interview with the respondents. b. Secondary Data The secondary data are collected from secondary sources. The secondary sources of data are the information received from books, journals and article concerned with the study for example website of the Nepal Bank Limited, thesis and dissertation submitted at Shanker Dev Campus, Central Library T.U.