Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Sustainable Design and Its Place in my Pedagogy Essay I believe that a person needs to know how to make (they need an understanding of the theories of manufacture at very least). They need to have that skill before they can become an accomplished designer. Equally, I believe that a maker needs to have a good understanding of the design process (they need a concept of design at least). This conceptual understanding will in turn inform the manufacture of designs. This maybe a bold statement to make, but my prior experiences have led me to stand by this assertion. My BA (Hons) in Furniture Design Craftsmanship was a fifty per cent design based course with a fifty per cent making aspect. This meant that with my understanding of how furniture was constructed, this informed my designing. But by the same token, not a complete compromise was ever made on the design. We were encouraged to stick by our guns with regards to form and function, and to whichever way our particular project was slanted. From that, when I entered the world of employment, realisations hit me thick and fast. It was evident when working with some interior designers, as well as some architects, that there was clearly no real concept of how their designs were going to be brought to three-dimensional life. This put a lot of pressure on me as a maker, to work through the problems of the designs. Now, if I was unfamiliar with the processes and concepts of design at this stage, I could have (as many in the same workshop did), said that it was not possible and not offered much in terms of alternatives or solutions (even though the designer seems to take a larger chunk of the commission and never pays for that problem solving that a manufacture has to deal with). If however, the designer is more familiar with the processes of manufacture, many problems could be resolved at the drawing board. I have also experienced levels of craftsmanship that are not worthy of that title. I am strong in my belief, that in Britain (or at least in the South-East and London areas); there is a distinct lack of practical ability regarding manufacturing expertise. Great Britain was once famed for its remarkable craftsmen and women of all fields, but working on building sites over the last three or so years has led me to ask; what happened to them? I believe, important hand skills are being lost and that design technology in schools is one of the only tools to try to reintroduce a revival. This could be done through a series of Focused Practical Tasks (FPTs); this will inform later Design Make Assignments (DMAs). However; Ofsted has reported consistently that designing skills lag behind making skills. In 2002 Ofsted reported that in some schools, there is insufficient attention to the processes of designing, particularly in Key Stage 3 where pupils experience of design and technology is merely a sequence of short focused practical tasks with no opportunity to apply their own ideas in a longer design task. (ITE, 2009) I personally have a pet dislike towards the current linear style project folder. An ADDIE model (Analyse, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate) these processes are considered to be sequential but also iterative. (Molenda, 2003) This is present in most schools and has been for a number of years, certainly during my education. It wasnt until I started my higher education that I realised that design is not linear at all. Design practice in Technology education in high schools context is not a representation of the professional realm of design. (Leahy, 2009, p. 25) We dont write a brief, research, write a specification, design, develop and make on after the other. In reality, we are constantly researching all along the way, we are then testing at a number of different stages and that advises our designs, developments require another level of research and so on. I understand the ease that a linear style can prove to be in school practice, but it is an artificial way of design. Both Linear process and assessment are stifling creative design outcomes. (Leahy, 2009, p. 25) I would like to build into my teaching a way of a addressing the folder design, so that it becomes more natural and closer to real industry approach. I also feel that as designers or makers, we have a conscience role and obligation to making a sustainable planet. On my degree course an emphasis towards sustainability was always implied, Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) was one of many governing bodies spoken about. We were always encouraged to be as least wasteful as possible and very conscience of selecting the right timber or other materials. I gained a great amount of respect for the importance of sustainability from two key sources. One was that in Native American Indian culture, that when a buffalo or bison was slain, not one piece of its body was ever wasted, all flesh became foo d, organs we delicacies, hides became clothing and shelters and bones became tools. The second was a book One Tree. The book shows the workings of a number of artists, sculptors, furniture makers and other craftsmen and women, that all used material from one oak tree. Every single bit of the tree was used, so that one persons waste was the next persons to manipulate. (Olson, 2001) Sustainable Design is a focus towards elements of social, environmental, developmental and ethical concerns. When going through the processes of designing physical objects and built environments; Questioning the need for a product; achieving more for less; a concern for quality of life instead of material standard of living; a focus on causes of environmental problems rather than their symptoms; and an onus on service as opposed to ownership (Goggin, 2002), all need to be considered along the design journey. This relates directly to my topic regarding the 6 Rs. The intention of sustainable design is to eliminate negative environmental impact completely through skillful, sensitive design (McLennan, 2004). This can only be achieved by: empowering people (children as well as adults) with the knowledge, ideas and tools that not only address current needs but also those of future generations (United Nations, 1992). Sustainable design will naturally lend itself to sustainable development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet the needs of their own (Goggin, 2002, p. 257). Two biologists Anne and Paul Ehrlich (1990) proposed that environmental impact (E) equates to population (P), multiplied by material consumption, or affluence (A), multiplied by the environmental impact of technology used to produce goods (T). This is shown as: E = P x A x T. Goggin and Lawler (2002) then explained that as a benchmark of today we can show it as 1 = 1 x 1 x 1. The United nations International Panel on Climate Change have called for a sixty per cent cut in green house gases. Population is set to double in the next forty years and the affluence mark is supposed to increase four times. This means to balance the equation: 0.4 (E) = 2 (P) x 4 (A) x ? (T), Technological Impact needs to be 0.05. That is a ninety-five per cent reduction. Clearly sustainability cannot be achieved through design alone and in the absence of a Draconian population control, we are left with affluence. (Goggin, 2002, p. 258) Does this then mean that the task of simply reducing the amount of products we manufacture is not enough, we then have to consume a lot less as well? We can consume far a smaller amount by addressing the six Rs, or in particular; Repair, Reuse and Recycle, and on a deeper level Refuse products that are not fit for purpose or/and non-sustainable. We can also address the issues of material consumption and technologies environmental impacts, through adopting an Ecodesign methodology or even a consideration for Life Cycles. These approaches look at every impact in every stage of the products life span towards the environment, as well as looking to improve the products function, appearance and quality (or Fit for Purpose). I have written into my topic of work an analysis task which in turn leads on to a redesign task or a development task, where a somewhat non-sustainable product is evaluated and redeveloped sensitively, in order to reduce the environmental impact of that product. Even if this is only on a basic introductory level, it will provide and use some, if not all, the relevant skills that are required for sustainable design. I believe if an element of sustainability is written into all design briefs, whether it is a small FPT, or a full DMA, then a thought at least to sustainability will be second nature. When walking around classrooms on my placement (also of my own schooling experience), challenging a pupils design folders for their inclusion of sustainable thought, seemed to receive a strained after-thought explanation. I have found myself trying to question further their intentions for material choices and production techniques. In doing this, sometimes the answers are good and seem well informed as if the knowledge is present in their understanding, but not applied in their designing. On other occasions, they simply do not have the knowledge and depth of understanding to inform their designing. That then puts the responsibility on us as design technology educators, to deliver not only the knowledge for their understanding, but also to write into project briefs and assessment criteria an aspect of environment consideration. There are a number of natural areas where sustainability fits neatly into the current ADDIE project folder style. I know I have mentioned my dislike for this unnatural linear way of designing, but maybe small steps are in order. In a full DMA project folder, for example a KS4 GCSE or A-Level controlled assessment folder, research, analyses and design developments are all areas to include sustainability, at very least. Most projects require an element of researching a current market product. While researching an analysis can be carried out to outline its level of sustainability and in this analysis evaluation, suggestions can be made to how to improve these levels. This subsequently leads onto writing in to a specification these findings and that will inform the design stages of the project. This is then revisited at the modification stage as well as the evaluation. This is not a new concept by any means. It was included in the 1995 National Curriculum frameworks. The approach to pupils understanding the issues of sustainability take three forms: eco-logging, eco-choice points and life-cycle design. (Goggin, 2002) Although I am suggesting that we ensure that sustainability is featured in design technology lessons, it is actually a statutory requirement. It is mentioned on a number of occasions throughout the 2008 National Curriculum and could also be interpreted into the Every Child Matters policy, under Making a Positive Contribution. Sustainability was also one of the buzz words at a recent AQA Teacher Standardising Meeting I attended. The AQAs controlled assessments guidance are pushing for an emphasis in pupils folders to be on sustainable design. (AQA, 2009) My chosen topic of sustainability fits into my personal pedagogy, as the importance of sustaining our environment is a not only crucial, but more of an obligation of a designer. The theory delivered over the 3 lessons maybe a bit intense for Key Stage 3, but as I am aiming at year 10 (Key Stage 4), it would do well to inform their GCSE controlled assessment folder and ultimately their design practice. I believe that it would be better used as part of a scheme of work, in which the theory would enlighten a full DMA project. Sustainability is one area of design technology amongst others, that if its knowledge is put into action/context then it enables creative problem-solving. (Lunn, 2008) The 2008 National Curriculum calls for creative problem solvers. The link between problem-solving and creativity also has two aspects: perceiving a problem is a creative act of an agentive mind; and seeking solutions, students improve their own practice. (Lunn, 2008) Sustainability is an ever-developing subject area, it develops with science, with new materials and will keep doing so, therefore the three lessons are very relevant and up to date now, and the main concepts will be as well for some time, but the content and examples will need to be revised regularly to still keep the lessons significant. The ability to be creative and flexible is critical in the face of a rapidly changing world. (Mishra, 2008) Bibliography AQA. (2009). AQA Controlled Assessment Teacher Standardising Meeting: GCSE Design Technology: Resistant Materials Technology delivered by Smith, R. Maidstone, Kent: AQA. Campbell, R.J., Robinson, W., Neelands, J., Huston, R. and Mazzoli, L. (2007). Personalised Learning: Ambiguities In Theory and Practice. British Journal of Educational Studies, 55 (2), P. 135-154 Chester, I. (2008). 3D-CAD: Modern Technology Outdated Pedagogy?. Design and Technology Education: An International Journal, 12 (1), P. 8-10 Ehrlich, P. and Ehrlich, A. (1990). The Population Explosion. New York: Simon and Schuster. Goggin, P. and Lawler, T. (2002). Sustainability and Design and Technology in Schools. In Owen-Jackson, G. (Ed.), Aspects of Teaching Secondary Design Technology Perspectives on Practice (2002 ed., pp. 257 266). London: Routeledge Falmer and The Open University. ITE. (2009). Pedagogy: Secondary Induction Subject Resources Network. Aspects of Secondary DT teaching, [Online] , Available: URL:http://www.data.org.uk/index.php?option=com_contentview=articleid=592Itemid=539 [Access date 7 November 2009]. Leahy, K., Gaughran, W. and Seery, N. (2009). Preferential Learning Styles as an Influencing Factor in design Pedagogy. (E. Norman, Ed.) Design and Technology Education: An International Journal , 14 (2), P. 25-44. Learning-Theories.com. (2009, November). Constructivism at Learning-Theories.com. Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2009, November) , Available URL:http://www.learning-theories.com/constructivism.html[Access date 9th November 2009]. Lunn, S., Davidson, M. and Murphy, P. (2008). Developing an effective Pedagogy for Creative Problem-Solving in Design and Technology. Centre for Curriculum and Teaching Studies, Faculty of Education and Language Studies, The Open University , Available: URLhttp://kn.open.ac.uk/public/getfile.cfm?documentfileid=4186 [Access date 9th November 2009]. McLennan, J. F. (2004). The Philosophy of Sustainable Design. Kansas City, Missouri: Ecotone LLC. Mishra, P. a. (2008). Teachers, Creativity TPACK: SITE Keynote. Michigan State University, USA. Molenda, M. (2003). The ADDIE Model (Draft). In A. . Kovalchick, Eds, Educational Technology: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: Copyright by ABC-Clio. National Curriculum. (2009), London: QCA Olson, G. and Toaig, P. (2001). One Tree, London: Merrell Publishers Oxford Dictionaries. (revised 2008). Concise Oxford English Dictionary (11th ed.). Oxford: Oxford Dictionaries. Qualifications and Curriculum Authority. (2009). Sustainable Development in Action: A Curriculum Planning Guide for Schools. London: Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA). Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency. (2008). National Curriculum. London: Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA). United Nations. (1992). Conference on Environment Development, Agenda 21, Promoting Environmental Awareness. Agenda 21: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (p. Chapter 36). Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: United Nations.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Constitutionality of School Vouchers Church and state absolutists believe that vouchers will violate the First Amendment of the Constitution. They argue that voucher systems give parents an incentive to send their kids to parochial school and thus represent an unconstitutional endorsement of religious education. As mentioned in the case study, the U.S. Supreme Court will address the Cleveland Scholarship Program's constitutionality. Many are anticipating what precedent will be set in this ruling because it inherently deals with defining the boundaries between church and state. Can taxpayer funds be allocated by the government to send children to a religiously-affiliated school? Consider the case of the Cleveland Scholarship Program. This program gives parents $2250 per year. Meanwhile, the cost of tuition at a religiously-affiliated private school is, on average, about $1200. The cost of tuition at a non-religious private school is, on average, about $5000. This price breakdown shows the implicit incentive in the Cleveland program--parents who cannot afford to pay more money out of their pocket will enroll their children in religiously-affiliated private schools. The founders of Cleveland's program argue that city parents are in no way encouraged to send their kids to religious schools. Parents can choose public magnet or charter schools, which are free and get far more funding per student than voucher schools. The importance of the Supreme Court decision that will be made should not be underestimated. "This is probably the most important church-state case in the last half-century," said Barry W. Lynn, executive director of Americans United for Separation of Church and State. "It will be a historic showdown over
Monday, January 13, 2020
Many parents in Japan firmly believe that higher education will ensure better positions, higher incomes, and superior life-styles for their children. Some even go into debt, spending over 60 million yen ($480,000, U. S. ) to put a child through the best private schools and universities. Do they reap the expected dividends? Ã¢â¬Å"In reality . . . the belief no longer holds true,Ã¢â¬ says the Mainichi Daily News. Ã¢â¬Å"There are not enough privileged positions to accept them,Ã¢â¬ and many have had to accept corporate positions formerly filled by high school graduates. While average lifetime earnings were higher for university graduatesÃ¢â¬â206. 55 million yen ($1,650,000, U. S. ) as opposed to 192. 93 million yen ($1,540,000, U. S. ) for high school graduate office workersÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"Japanese parents may realize some day that the gaps are too small to merit a serious burden on their household economy,Ã¢â¬ says the paper. Most of the parents around the world, or even mature individuals at that see education as a stepping stone towards a better future for all. Moreover, attaining a higher level of learning is believed to ensure the said individuals of better lives in the future as they are given the exact challenges that they are to face in the actual market that they are to serve after they have attended their scholastic appointments. This is the reason why the objectives of higher education is further focused in the way that the curriculum of the education actually pursues the concerns and the entities of the national progress of the countries around the world. It is through this that the systems of higher education in terms of aiding the society with the knowledge that they are due of receiving from the institutions. To prove this fact the following statements have been made by the Ã¢â¬Å"article on the changes on tertiary educationÃ¢â¬ : Ã¢â¬Å"General objectives of higher education are sustainable national development optimizing and the production of new knowledge. Ã¢â¬ (http://www. see-educoop. net/education_in/pdf/bela_knjiga-09-cro-enl-t02. pdf) From this particular statement, it is noticeably obvious that the aims of higher education are focused on implying a much better possibility for national progress. This is also the primary reason why the enhancement of the process is strongly initiated through its integration within the systems of technological advancements such as synchronous learning and other online based learning systems as per offered to several adult learners who have lesser time that could be spent on going to school and taking up formal physical classes. The said innovative design of education actually makes it possible for a huge number of higher education learners to grasp their lessons through online classes that are held virtually through the internet connections that the institutions have towards their students. How is this process primarily applied? Virtual schools as well as virtual training programs work in a way that a person or a student in that matter who is a member of a virtual; program is given his or her own security number, which serves as a security access to the virtual class. Then, the virtual lessons could already be presented to that member in a virtual class setting. The instruction in such classes usually occurs between a panel or a group of instructors interacting with at a maximum number of 200 students around the globe simultaneously. (Robins, 2003, p 6) The students are aided with the knowledge they need to understand their lessons better with the use of online libraries, electronic sources and both visual and audio materials used for better explanation of the subject matter being tackled (Robins, 2003, p 8). Ã¢â¬Å"Virtual learning started in the year 1996, when Virtual High School had been first established in Canada. The said virtual school offered two complete courses on Biology and Canadian literature. The said school grew into becoming groups of interconnected classes and became among the pioneer providers of virtual educationÃ¢â¬ (Carchidi, 2001, p 21). The challenge of offering online courses and assisting students online proved to be a challenge for these pioneers but they strived and thus were able to survive up until the present time. Today they are known to have been hosting at least a thousand students from all over the globe and assisting these people attain their goals of both gaining more knowledge and finishing a degree at their own convenience (Preston, 2004, p 22). Virtual learning is closely related to the systems used by home schooling only that this time instructors are able to completely communicate with their students through the Internet. Not to mention the high tech presentation of information through the integration of technological presentations along with the presentation of the subject matter, and the convenience brought about by the internet connection to the students and the easier understanding brought about by the innovations in this form of education really brings major changes in the modern learning process. Today, this form of learning had also been integrated in public schools in the United States. This had been designed to assist especially students who have a hard time learning their subjects through simple classroom presentations. In this case, a student is asked to sit in front of the computer and be connected to an instructor through the Internet and is thus assisted using media presentations. Other high-tech materials used for the said educational system are Adobe products and articles, Jasc Products, as well as Macromedia. (Preston, 2004, p 24) Aside from this, other institutions also include Corel Products as a cheaper version of the ones mentioned earlier. In this way, learning becomes easier, not to mention that the student could access these institutional provisions completely free of charge. When it comes to the pricing and location of the virtual classes, at times these classes are free or if not, the parents or the students at that needs to pay a minimal amount of money to obtain certain services. Grading and student evaluation processes are still done by the instructors with the help of electronic systems within the computer programs. In this way, the students are given assistance in the areas of learning they specially need help with. Yes, in this way, education is provided with the highest level of effectiveness. Along with this, seeing that online learning had been exceptionally effective for students, several business companies began to see the benefits of the said learning program (Rothwell, 2006, p 2). In this regard, several companies around the globe opted to avail the benefits of online training, having been able to learn through the Internet without spending so much for the venue, the materials and other food expenses compared to that of traditional training methods. Surely, business companies mostly benefit from this way of training. Indeed, although virtual training gives the most beneficial way of learning for both the companies and the employees as well, it could not be denied that these changes taken by business organizations post several challenges for the company itself. In this regard, it is not only the employees who need to be trained but the administrators as well. This issue then opens the questions regarding the challenges given by adult learning difficulties as well as usage of technology for learning shall be a matter of concern for the organization. The main challenges of online learning programs is the fact that training people using technology requires a lot of skills on the part of the facilitators and the instructors. In this regard, several writers placed some patterns, which new facilitators could use to be able to come up with effective and efficient learning programs provided through the Internet.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
A song that is based off the existential movement is Ã¢â¬Å"UnwrittenÃ¢â¬ by Natasha Bedingfield. This song speaks on how Ã¢â¬Å"no one elseÃ¢â¬ (Bedingfield) can choose your path Ã¢â¬Å"only you canÃ¢â¬ (Bedingfield) but because you choose your own path, whether it leads to despair or happiness, you must also take any blame that may be presented no one can take that for you either. There are many other musicians that have existential themes in their music and I have noticed that most of existentialism music seems to span from much of the well-known literature. Existentialism is prominently seen in literature through the minds of geniuses like Kierkegaard, Heidegger and Sartre. The Concept of Anxiety by Kierkegaard helps to explain the true definition of anxiety and why it exists. Ã¢â¬Å"Learning to understand anxiety is an adventureÃ¢â¬ (Kierkegaard). Anxiety is having fear for the unknown, so there is nothing truly there to fear. (www.uri.edu)The dark causes great fear but the fear is of something that cannot be seen. The darkness in this case would be the endless violence and death that swarms the air with its foul stench. Anxiety is seldom an object of consciousness that we can focus on but more of an inner state of being which makes it known through conceptual thought. When things such as war or mass genocide erupt Ã¢â¬Å"In angst we confront the fundamental precariousness of existenceÃ¢â¬ (Park) until anxiety burst out of the bubble it is placed in and renders us helpless. Even though anxiety seems deathlyShow MoreRelatedSteve J obs, Emerson, And Henry Wadsworth Longfellow728 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"No one else can feel it for you/Only you can let it in/No one, No one else/Can speak the words on your lipsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"UnwrittenÃ¢â¬ Natasha Bedingfield. Natasha BedingfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s song resembles self-reliance, much like the romantic authorÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs. The song inspires to think of yourself and taking care of yourself and not listening to society.. The song gives people more confidence in life. On the day of Steve JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ commencement speech the romantic authors wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve loved to hear it. Steve Jobs, Henry David Thoreau