Friday, December 20, 2019
How It Began September 18th, 2017 and the time was round 6-ish. My alarm went off, and it was eerily silent. I mean, it was usually quiet. Theres only me, my parents, and my yellow lab I call Stalk because he follows me everywhere. My parents were asleep, and Stalk isnt much of a barker. (At least not anymore though he has his moments.) I felt like something was diffrent, you know what I mean? Something was missing. On the edge of my bed, Stalk was sleeping. Assuming my parents were still asleep, I quickly got up to get dressed. Here is how my room is set up: There is a small closet over to the east, my bed to the west, my desk is to the south, and the door coming into my room would be north. The closet hasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦When I opened it up, I saw a BEAUTIFUL old room filled with books! Lots of them actually. Our house is very old, and once belonged to a really rich old dude with like two wives and 8 children. There was like two other hidden rooms we found earlier tha t year. On to that later. Right now were focused on my room. (We dont live in a mansion, but its pretty close to one.) I didnt tell my parents cause they wouldve just gotten rid of the books and turned the room into another apocalypse room. (They are extremely paranoid about that.) It was a secret room just for me. There was all kinds of classics like: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain, Pride and Predjuice by Jane Austen,The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton, all 198 plays and poems of William Shakespeare, The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett, and The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint-ExupÃ ©ry. Two books of all Edgar Allan Poes Poems, To Kill A Mocking Bird by Harper Lee, A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens, Little Women by Lousia May Alcott, Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, The Pearl by John Steinbeck, and Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens. Then, theres the few books I borrowed from school or got from family for Christmas and bithdays such as: All 7 books of J.K. R owlings Harry Potter series, A Long Walk to Water by Linda Sue Park, all 12 of Diary of A Wimpy Kid by Jeff Kinney, Wonder by R.J. Palacio, all twelve Dork Diary books by Rachel RenÃ ©e Russell, all 3Show MoreRelatedA Brief Note On The Civil Rights Era1175 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages 10 Page Essay In the eleventh grade I was assigned to write a ten-page essay on the civil rights era. You had to choose a specific person or group from a list and write how they helped with era. I was given three weeks to write the essay. However, there was an outline to help us know how far along we were supposed to be. We were not held accountable to follow the essays outline, because my teacher wanted it to a college essay. There was seven parts of the essay Plan of Investigation, BackgroundRead MoreCritique of Julie Aberdeens Essay on the Writings of Langston Hughes during the Harlem Renaissance638 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAberdeens essay on the writings of Langston Hughes during the Harlem Renaissance Aberdeens essay on Langston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance had a clear theme that was supported throughout by many examples. While an actual thesis statement was lacking, or a title that would have provided similar direction, the content stayed close to the topics of striving for equality and cultural identity through the writings of Hughes. A good thesis statement for this essay might be: This essay will examineRead MoreAnalysis Of Allen Guelzo And Vincent Harding1102 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAllen Guelzo and Vincent Harding: Essay Review As a Republican President, Abraham Lincoln opposed slavery. He believed it was unnecessary to everyone-including Negros and Whites. 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I have decided to discuss what I have learned throughout these four pieces developing my voice within the two rhetorical analyses, d eveloping my grammar skillsRead MorePersonal Statement : Academic Argument, Academic Analysis, And Proposal900 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesalready learned much more than I did before. It is now time to write a Portfolio Essay, an essay detailing what I learned and how I have improved my writing skills in English 102. This semester I wrote four essays: Informative Report, Academic Argument, Academic Analysis, and Proposal. With each essay, I displayed my strengths and weaknesses and improved them through teaching, drafting, and revising. This Portfolio Essay will reflect on the growth my writing and I have undergone through this semesterRead MoreI Am My First English Class888 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages I can still remember how she used her distinctive teaching style to encourage us to learn English and motivate our interests on reading and writing. For example, when Mrs. Huang was introducing the alphabet to the class, she described the alphabet as some interesting images so that students can remember the alphabet more easily. After a few months, my classmates and I became familiar with the alphabet and some basic words like Ã¢â¬Å"appleÃ¢â¬ , and Mrs. Huang began to teach us how to communicate in EnglishRead MoreA University Of Tampa Freshman904 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAs a University of Tampa freshman, I would have never guessed how much progress I could have made as a writer in class FYW 100, taught by Professor Birnbaum. Coming out of high school from one of the most prestigious, well-known schools in the nation, gave me an ambiguous amount of certainty to receiving an A in her class. Before beginning my journey in college, Jesuit, which was a college preparatory high school, gave mandatory four-year English courses to every student. With that being said, thereRead MoreHow I Learned And Developed My Writing Skills866 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages This semester I was surprised by how much I actually learned and developed my writing skills. I was given the opportunity to learn the many steps that it is required to become a good writer. Writing requires a lot of work. It consists of various steps; prewriting, drafting, rewriting, proofreading and publishing. . All of these components are extremely important, and necessary, and will need to be follow to improve studentÃ¢â¬â¢s writing. I feel my writing has improved due to the help of the writingRead MoreMy Journey : My Educational Journey973 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMy Journey I began my journey of writing on May 7, 2017 when I began taking English 1301 at Texas State Technical College. When entering the course, I did not feel that the course was relevant to complete my educational journey. Writing was not one of my strongest points, so this journey was a difficult one. During the course I learned how to better prepare myself for writing and composing assignments, how to construct an outline, proper sentence structure, and punctuation. I feel this journey willRead MoreClass Reflection Essay786 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMLA formatted essays to prepare for the AP exam at the end of the year. I think my classmates and I were taught well which resulted in a good score on my exam. I believe the class that I did the most amount of work in would be my AP Literature and Composition class. Although this class was difficult I think I enjoyed it the most. The teacher made learning to read and write easy and fun. We wrote a lot of essays in this class all being in MLA format. They were similar to the essays that we will have
Thursday, December 12, 2019
Question: Discuss about theAuditing for Prevention and Detection. Answer: Introduction Lehman Brothers was US` investment bank and indulged in providing financial services. This firm was being established in 1850. Lehman Brothers` failure cause global financial crisis. As in the year 2008, Lehman Brothers declared itself as insolvent. This reports is based upon the issues of auditing which were associated with the firm`s collapse (Shah, A. 2013). As the report discusses about the important terms such as- auditing and assurance services. Beside this auditing standards are also described in the report. As these standards frameworks some guidelines to be followed by the auditor so that unbiased audit reports could be presented by him or her. Issues identified in auditing process which led for the development of ASA 701 are also discussed in the report. What is Audit and Assurance Service? Audit can be defined as an official inspection and confirmation of transactions, records and accounts, specifically of financial accounts to make certain passivity to requirements. The main purpose of the audit is to verify performance, conformance or compliance. Certain audits have special administrative purposes like auditing documents, performance, risk or following up on completed corrective actions(Spencer , 2011). Generally there are two types of audit which are internal audit, carried out by the internal audit department of the organization; external audit carried out by the audit firm. Assurance services can be defined as self-governing professional services which supports decision makers by enlightening the quality of information, or its perspective( Thibodeau Freier, 2013). Assurance services and audit are both different terms as the assurance services is wide in nature. Assurance services incorporates audit of financial statement and attest services. What are auditing standards? Guidelines followed by the auditors while inspecting the financial statements as well as other data are known as auditing standards. Standards of auditing are publicized by authorities like- AICPA, IIA and GASA. The standards of auditing confirms the consistency, verifiability of actions and accuracy in the report of audit prepared by the auditor (Flores, C., 2011). In addition to this, auditing standards comprehends objectives for the auditors, interrelated with requirements and solicitation as well as other material which instructs for financial statement`s audit. Auditing standards states that the auditor should retain adequate skill to carry out its professional training and the auditor should also take care of independency while preparing an audit report of a listed firm. As the auditor`s report shall be free of any biasness and influence so that fair and adequate report of audit could be prepared by the auditor(Spencer , 2011). Beside this, the standard of auditing also guides the auditor to discharge due professional care while the process of audit is being going on till to the completion and preparation of the audit report. ASA701 Communicating Key Audit Matters in the Independent Auditors Report: Key maters. ASA 701 is an auditing standard which was being developed to safeguard the independency of the auditors. As in the influence of the firm the auditors used to manipulate the audit report. In addition to this, earlier, the important facts or the information which auditor come to across while making the audit report was also not used to be disclosed in the audit report( Porter, Hatherly, Simon, 2014). Therefore, the new auditing standard was being developed so that the key matters of the audit report could be communicated to the members of the organization and to the stakeholders of that organization as well. The term KAM can be elaborated as Key Audit Matters in the professional judgment of the auditors were of most significance in the financial statement`s audit of a listed firm of the current period. The key matters of an audit are selected from those matters which obliges for significant auditor attention to perform the audit (Flores, C. 2011). The key maters are required to be communicated through the audit report as this audit standard supports the independency of the auditor.Following aspects are required to be determined for involving key matters in the audit report- Areas of risk related with misstatement of financial statements Estimation of vagueness and the auditors` substantial judgments. Substantial transactions or events. In addition to this, the key matters which are communicated in the audit report should be explained that why these are considered as significant for the report of audit, how the key matters are addressed in the report, as well as the associated disclosure shall also be mentioned in the independent audit report. Auditing Issues Surrounding the Collapse of Lehman Brothers. As per the general auditing principles it is obligatory to disclose the relevant and fair information in public in the report of audit of a listed firm. But in the case of Lehman Brothers, the auditor firm did not discharge their duties in proper manner. As various facts were being obscured by the auditing firm which put an impact on the stakeholders as fair information was not being given to them in the audit report. Repo 105 was used for the accounting of Lehman Brothers which put question on the fairness of auditing as the audit firm produce superior results through this accounting system and the real facts and information was manipulated and concealed as per the interest of the firm. Failure of bank was one of the reason of using Repo 105, but the auditor concealed this information and this can be treated as one of the issue associated with the collapse of the firm i.e. Lehman Brothers (Shah, A., 2013). Through Repo 105 the transactions were recorded in such way that stated liqui dity for the company. Another issue linked with the collapse of Lehman Brothers is that, the auditors also disregarded the signs of mismanaged accounts` books of the Lehman Brothers. As the sign of mismanagement and fail of the accounting books was given by the internal audit department of Lehman Brothers but these indications was not considered by the external auditors of the firm and this inconsideration also led to the preparation of vague audit report and it also led to create slipup in the financial market. Beside this, use of impaired liquidity assets by the firm (Lehman Brothers) was also obscured by the external audit firm in the audit report (Elliott, L., 2011). Lehman Brothers, used impaired assets the impaired assets were recorded in the financial statements of company, in their carrying value that go beyond their fair value. Concealing the fact of usage of impaired liquidity asset put negative impact on the investors as they achieved higher loss due to this information. Hence this auditing issues can also be regarded as the reason for the collapse of the firm- Lehman Brothers. Relate the issues that led to the development of the new auditing standard ASA701 Communicating Key Audit Matters in the Independent Auditors Report. The issues related to the collapse of Lehman Brothers led to the development or change as the new auditing standard was developed i.e. ASA 701. This standard implies that Key Audit Matters should be disclosed and communicated in the independent auditor`s report( Perler Howard M. , 2010). This standard was developed for the reason that useful information which could be helpful for the business organization as well as for the stakeholders shall be disclosed in the audit report. Some of the issues that were taken as a reason for the development of auditing standard ASA 701 are given below: Use of repo 105- Lehman Brothers used Repo 105 for maintain the accounting transactions. This was used by the firm to produce better results as in real the result were not good. Repo 105 can be defined as a trick of accounting through which short term loan of company can be classified as sales and the company can consequently use the cash income from assumed sale in order to reduce its liabilities. But the use of this technique i.e. Repo 105 was not disclosed by the Lehman Brothers to the rating agencies, government, to its investors and own board as well( Perler Howard M. , 2010). It is analyzed from the case study of Lehman brothers that the one of the senior official of the company make warning about the use of repo 105 as when this information will be disclosed in the public or if the public will find out that the company is using repo 105 to manage its accounts then it will escalate reputational risk.In the audit process conducted by Ernst Young, this case was ignored and disc losure of this situation was also not done(Well, 2017). This is against the GASA principles. As the auditor must disclose the relevant information in the audit report so that it can be identified that the accounting system is properly used or not. Lehman Brothers used this Repo 105 but this case was ignored in the audit therefore this can be an issue for the collapse of firm. The firm was using impaired liquidity assets, which had less cost but this situation was also being ignored by the Ernst Young while audit process, as this was an important information to be disclosed in the audit report(Obana, 2015). But this situation was concealed by the audit firm instead of being communicated to the organization`s members as well as to the stakeholders. It is obligatory for the company as per the standards that in case impaired assets are being used by the company then carrying amount of those assets should be decreased from the recoverable account. But in the case of Lehman Brothers, the use of impaired assets was not disclosed and the assets were presented in the financial statements in a carrying value that exceed their fair value. This situation led to the users of financial statements to make wrong decisions. One of the other issue responsible for the development of the auditing standard was that- the external audit firm i.e. Ernst Young was informed about the mismanaged accounting books of Lehman Brothers, but the auditor did not consider this information and the audit was done ignoring this information(Elliott, L. 2011). Concealing the information in the audit report resulted as loss to the stakeholders especially to the investors. As the investors achieved loss due the audit report presented by the auditor in the dependency of the firm. Issues discussed above can be treated as reason for the development of the new auditing standard. As through the above situations it can be analyzed that the auditor firm or the external auditor did not discharged their duties and responsibilities in fair way. As the influence of the organization or some other reason put an impact on the independent auditor`s report(Davies, J. 2014). The auditor obscured the facts and information which was important to be disclosed in the report of audit. Therefore this new auditing standard was developed with an objective to enhance the relevance and value of the report of audit. If ASA701 Communicating Key Audit Matters, standard were there at the time of collapse of Lehman Brothers, then what are the matters that auditor will disclose in his audit report. In this part of the report key matters which should be disclosed at the time when the ASA 701 was implemented in preparing audit report for Lehman Brothers when the firm was going to collapse are being discussed. In case, ASA 701 was there then the key maters that should be communicated in the audit report by the auditor are as follows- Lessened liquidity assets- The auditor should disclose the use of impaired liquidity assets by Lehman Brothers in his audit report( Thibodeau Freier, 2013). This was a key matter as the use of lessen liquidity assets could influence the stakeholders of the firm. Users of financial accounts used to make decisions about different aspects after considering the statements of the company. Therefore the financial statements should be presented in fair way so that the stakeholder may take correct decisions. Repo 105- Lehman Brothers used Repo 105 for the accounting transactions. This was also one of the key matter that could be disclosed in the audit report of Ernst Young. As this information is crucial to be communicated in order to make aware the members of organization and the respected stakeholders that to maintain the accounting transactions or to record the financial transactions Repo 105 is being used which influences the results and can change the real results as per the requirement( Perler Howard M. , 2010). This situation should be considered by the auditor and included in the audit report of the firm so that they could be informed about the vague facts presented through Repo 105. Mismanaged books of accounts- Internal audit department gave signs to the external auditor that the books of accounts of Lehman Brothers were mismanaged and the accounting transactions were not properly recorded(Spencer , 2011). This is also a key matter to be disclosed in the audit report of Lehman Brothers. The auditor should communicate this key matter to the members of top management of the firm. So that the firm shall consider this case as important issue which could affect the business and other aspects as well. One of the reason to consider the mismanagement of accounting book as to be disclosed as the key matter in the audit report is that books of accounts which are not properly managed or the transactions are not recorded properly can also put an impact audit report( Porter, Hatherly, Simon, 2014). As the missing relevant information from the failed books of accounts leads towards preparation of the audit report which is unable to present improper information. Conclusion This report draws a conclusion that auditing plays an important role in inspecting and verifying the accounting transactions of listed firm. Auditor verifies the transaction system of accounts and prepares a report based on that assessment. This audit report provides a basis to the business organization to ascertain the economic condition and other aspects as well. General principles formed for the auditing should be followed by the auditors as it outlines the audit practices and lays emphasis on preparing and presenting a fair and adequate audit report without any influence. In addition to this it is also concluded that the auditors shall involve KAM in their audit report so that key matters of the audit shall be communicated to the top management or to the important stakeholders. References Amadeo, K. (2016). 2008 Financial Crisis: Causes, Costs and Could It Reoccur? thebalance. Chatterjee, P. (2015) Ernst Young Pays $10 Million To Settle Lehman Brothers Audit Failure Lawsuit, CorpWatch. Davies, J. (2014). Global Financial Crisis What caused it and how the world responded,Canstar. Elliott, L. (2011). Global financial crisis: five key stages 2007-2011, the guardian. Flores, C. (2011) "New Trends in Auditor Liability",European Business Organization Law Review (EBOR),vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 415-436. Norgren, C. (2010). The Causes of the Global Financial Crisis and Their Implications for Supreme Audit Institutions, Riksrevisionen. Perler, J., Howard M. , S. M. (2010). Financial Shenanigans: How to Detect Accounting Gimmicks Fraud in Financial Reports,. McGraw Hill Education. Porter, B., Hatherly, D., Simon, J. (2014). Principles of External Auditing. Wiley. Thibodeau, J., Freier, D. (2013). Auditing and Accounting Cases: Investigating Issues of Fraud and Professional Ethics. Wiley. Obana, J. (2015, 10 30). How to Determine and Communicate Key Audit Matters (KAM) in the New Auditor's Report. Retrieved from www. linked.in: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/determination-communication-key-audit-matters-new-obana-cpa-mba Shah, A. (2013). Global Financial Crisis, Global Issues. Spencer , K. H. (2011). The Essential Guide to Internal Auditing. Wiley. Wiggins, R. Z., Bennett, R. L., Metrick, A. (2015). The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy D: 1 The Role of Ernst Young, Yale program on financial stability case study, 3D-V1. Well, J. T. (2017). Corporate Fraud Handbook: Prevention and Detection. Wiley.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
1.) LAUNDRY PG: 46.0% Tide (33.2%) Mr. Clean (7.9%) Unilever Phils.: 32.5% Surf (19.2%) Breeze (10.7%) Peerless: 5.6% Champion (5.6%) 2.) FABRIC CONDITIONERS PG: 63.9% Downy (63.9%) Unilever Phils.: 27.7% Comfort (27.72%) Henkel Phils.: 4.8% Vernell (4.8%) 3.) TOILET SOAPS PG: 63.9% Safeguard (57.0%) Ivory (5.0%) CPP: 13.4% Palmolive Naturals (8.3%) Tender Care (3.8%) JJ Phils.: 4.6% 4.) HAIR CONDITIONER Unilever: 82.5% Creamsilk (82.5%) PG: 11.0% Pantene (7.5%) Ivory (3.5%) Bristol-Myers: 4.9% Herbal Essence (4.9%) 5.) SHAMPOOS PG: 41.0% Rejoice (16.9%) Pantene (9.1%) HeadShoulders (8.9%) Ivory (6.0%) Unilever: 11.0% Sunsilk (23.5%) Lux (6.8%) CPP: 23.1% Palmolive (16.5%) Optima (3.3%) 6.) BABY DIAPERS PG: 41.0% Pampers Comfort (29.2%) Pampers Dry (12.6%) Kimberly-Clark Phils.: 37.5% Huggies (21.4%) Kimbies (16.1%) Unitrade: 12.7% Prokids (9.4%) Lovesome (1.1%) 7.) CATAMENIALS JJ Phils.: 52.9% Modess (36.8%) Carefree (16.0%) PG: 25.6% Whisper (25.6%) Kimberly-Clark Phils.: 18.5% Newtex (18.5%) Objectives To increase market share of hair conditioner category from 11% with 10% progressive increase in every quarter. To increase market share of catamenials category from 25% to 50%. To develop a better product differentiation for catamenials and hair conditioner portfolio to compete with the leading competitors. External Environment THREATS: Continuing decline of the Philippines economy and political instability The product of competitors has already established a loyal market that PG might find it difficult to penetrate the target market The competitors are multinational company too that maintains an aggressive marketing strategies There is an emergence of cheap private-label brands of retailers like the SM bonus There is lowering of prices of competitors due to increasing inter-Asian interdependence (AFTA) There is an influx of merger-fever of big competitors OPPORTUNITIES: Significant increase in population which gives an opportunity for a larger market Growth in the industrial and service sector There is a wide array of market in Hair Conditioner category since anybody young and old can use it People are becoming more conscious of personal care that opens to a vast market. Internal Environment WEAKNESSES: Maintains wide variety of products resulting to some products seem to be unnoticed by the consumers Skills, training and development at times deprioritized/delayed No real conscious effort to search for cost reduction opportunities in areas of: OPERATING EXPENSES, ASSETS UTILIZATION, MARKETING, CONSUMER RESEARCH, TECHNICAL TESTING, MERCHANDISING, ETC., STRENGTHS: One of the top companies in the country Has established brand names and considered as market leader in household necessities and personal care Maintains high integrity in terms of product quality and looks forward always to win in the marketplace Vicious in building superior relationships with the target market including customers, suppliers, the private and government sectors. Alternative Courses of Action ACTION ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Focus on Product Development -Will improve customer satisfaction and maintain product loyalty among consumer -Create product differentiation and develop a better product image -Efficient utilization of gathered data -Additional cost -Focus on Research and Development (RD) Penetrate the market through massive tri-media campaign (print, broadcast, television) with focusing on consumer satisfaction -Promote product and become a household name among consumers -Vast resources of P G could be put to use with an aggressive marketing strategy that is aimed of maintaining its competitive edge over other companies. -Additional cost -Would face stiff competition with other multinational companies that provide hair conditioner and catamenials product. Establish a well-planned management of product distribution in all areas of the country -Increase market share through making the product conveniently available in all areas of distribution outlets -This will improve the marketing of the product Systematize the flow of the distribution of products -Additional workforce means additional expense Strategies Need to strengthen the marketability of both products by developing our value proposition plus a massive advertising and promotional campaigns as well as developing distribution coverage to reach product maturity. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Enhancement of product quality to come up with the best product differentiation to be offered to the consumer on which the R D will be tasked to execute. COMMUNICATION TO CONSUMERS 1. Advertising Comprehensive advertising campaign using print ad, TV/Radio media, billboard, flyers, banners etc. Will commission top advertising agency to create a new face to the brands. 2. Image Models Each product line would have a model that would epitomize the product differentiation. In catamenial category, the endorser should represent credible talent like popular star that exhibits glamour, beauty and elegance in all aspects. For hair conditioner category, the image model should be a popular star that is being adored both by young and old. 3. Budget A. Catamenial Category ( Whisper ) Initial budget for year is P100,000,000.00 Covers Production, TV ads, radio and print B.Hair Conditioner ( Pantene ) Initial Budget for the year is P130,000,000.00 Covers all tri-media expenses Covers also talent fee as well as production of ads CONVENIENCE A. Sales Force: Strengthen its sales force by giving enough commissions to encourage them to cover nationwide distribution Trainings and seminars will be conducted regularly to sales people in order to attain product knowledge and how to close a deal. B. Distributors / Dealers We will be giving better margin of discounts for major distributor as well as dealers to carry the products Would extend a good credit line to big distributors C. Local Satellites Establish a branch in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao to manage properly the distribution of stocks available anytime needed by the distributors Action Plans/Programs A.Launching of new ads promotions (tri-media) Key Dates:1st Quarter of the Year (January Ã¢â¬â March) Re-launching of the product of its new ads and a fresh endorser via formal product advertisements through the media Ã¢â¬â radio, TV, and print. The promotional campaign for the product will be in full blast Holding of press-conference and issue press releases with its new endorser Nationwide tour will be done to be covered by a major TV station B.Summer Special Big Event Key Dates:2nd Quarter (April June) Continuous tri-media advertisement Monitor market acceptance Sponsor major summer activities like beauty pageants, sports activities, etc. Designing new concept on ads and promotion Deployment of trained sales force C.Introduction of New Ads thru TV stations Key Dates:3rd Quarter (July September) Introduction of new ads in all TV stations Create a jingle in thru TV ads that any person would enjoy to emulate Continuous print ads and radio placements Evaluation of each distribution centers nationwide D.Year End Special Key Dates:4th Quarter (October December) Assessment of 3 quarters performance Conduct an inventory audit and product evaluation movement versus the budget Sustain its advertisements to ensure continued product patronage Culmination of the strategic plans thru a Christmas special such as party, cash bonus or any incentives for top performing employees. Recognition of consumer of its continued patronage of product through raffle draw. Potential Problem Implementation of the above-mentioned strategies and plans will encourage the competing companies to focus also on how to maintain its market leadership in catamenials and hair conditioner category. They would address too the delivery of the desired satisfaction of consumers more effectively and efficiently than what they did in the usual marketing practice. The challenges that would emerge will be a dilemma on consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s response and how to adjust to the various marketing offerings of each competing companies. Contingency Plan Each product line managers of catamenials and hair conditioner category will be very active in the monthly assessment and interpretation of the financial data based on sales/market response. Rigorous research surveys and distribution centers checking will be undertaken. This will provide measurement as to the effectiveness of the plans implemented and the output would tell what necessary and immediate modification or improvement steps to be carried out.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
During his career, he revolutionized the sound of rock, and changed it greatly. Hendrix was a major influence in music and with his beliefs. Jim Hendrix was a positive influence on the world, and his music and views continue to inspire many people. Jim Hendrix was born in Seattle, Washington on November 27, 1942. Throughout his childhood, his family dealt with financial problems, and he was sometimes put in the care of friends and family.By the time he was nine, his parents had divorced, and as occasionally sent to live In Vancouver, British Columbia with his grandmother. Around the age of fifteen is when he started to pursue his love of music. His first acoustic guitar was given to him for five dollars, and he immediately began to learn to play by listening to records, and through tips from other players. In 1959, his father bought him his first electric guitar. Hendrix main influences were Elvis Presley, blues music, such as the Muddy Waters and B. We will write a custom essay sample on Jimi Hendrix: Why He Desrves World Recognition or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page B. King.Another big Influence came from the western movie Johnny Guitar because the main character Is a hero that isnt carry a gun, but only a guitar. Jim Hendrix has had an obvious contribution to society in music. But many people dont know that he also contributed by Joining the army. He was assigned to the 1st Airborne Division and was stationed in Kentucky. Unfortunately, after a year, he was discharged because during his twenty-sixth parachute Jump, he broke his ankle. Secondly, and more importantly, his greatest contribution was his advances In music.He furthered the range of the electric guitar, establishing It as a unique source, ether than amplified guitar, and blended many styles of his voice and his guitar style. Along with other bands during his time, he furthered the development of hard rock, heavy metal, and blues. Hendrix contributions to music can not be overstated, and without a doubt, they still impact many people, more specifically, musicians. Although he was unable to read music, and he was self-taught, he was a music genius. He pioneered the use of effects, Like way-way, phasing, and fuzz tone, which have become part of rock music. His precision and speed with his guitar, have influenced people to try to aspire to lay half as good as him. All of his contributions have lasted almost thirty years because Jim Hendrix was a major force in music then, and was so powerful, that they have all continued to influence and inspire people. There are really only two areas of the world that Hendrix has Influenced, and that Is Europe, Japan, and the United States. He Minimally had success In Europe, and throughout his career he made fans such as Eric Clayton, members of The Beetles and The Who.In the United States, his fame came later, although he was already internationally known. Many people have been affected by Hendrix music, and have been influenced to pursue careers, and have become great fans of his. Jim Hendrix has influenced artists in the funk genre of music like The Sisley Brothers and Prince. Also, his Influence In music extends to rap music, and to artists such as Wesley Jean Hendrix, simply in the fact that everyone can relate to music, and he made it easy for everyone to listen and enjoy it. Hendrix made rock music different and unique.In conclusion, Jim Hendrix has revolutionized the sound of rock music, and mirrored new advances in the music as well. He has influenced people that like completely different types of music other than rock. Not only that, but he made the music because of his love for it and wanted it to be perfect for everyone. He succeeded greatly with that, and even with his untimely and tragic death, to this day, people continue to love his music. Jim Hendrix played the music so that everyone could relate to it, and because of that he is known as one of the greatest and most influential guitarists and music artists of all time.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Braque the Fogotten Cubist Master essays Although George Braque (May 13, 1882 - Aug. 31, 1963) was one of the most influential painters of the twentieth century his name is all but forgotten. He has received little credit for his efforts towards the creation of analytic cubism. Many art historians believe that his prestigious role as father of analytic cubism was cut short because of Picassos fame. Many arguments have arisen asking the question: Who is the father of cubism? There is no doubt that Picasso started the spark which ignited modern art movements with the creation of Les Demoiselles dAvignon.. But, soon after Picasso created this work Braque created Houses at LEstaque. This painting started the analytic phase of cubism. With this in mind, it can be stated that Picasso is the father of modern twentieth century art and Braque is the father of analytic cubism. George Braque is one of the most influential painters of the twentieth century. He co-worked with Picasso to create cubism and helped spark all the future art movements of the twentieth century. As well as this, he was the influence that made Picasso the fame that he was to become. Braque has never received the recognition he should have because of Picassos fame, but his personal position in the art community was high and his involvement with World War One was a major culprits that aided in his downfall in artistic popularity. Who the father of cubism?, has always been a question that has pondered the minds of art historians and scholars. It is clear though that both Braque and Picasso played their prominent role in the creation of cubism. Picasso provided, with his proto-Cubist "Demoiselles," the initial liberating shock. But it was Braque, largely because of his admiration for Cezanne, who provided much of the early tendency toward geometrical forms. Braques early tendency towards geometric form and cubes wa...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
VEHICLE ROUTE OPTIMIZATION FOR RFID INTEGRATED WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEM - Essay Example The model normally applies precise data having respective quantity and proper location undertaken through the use of the RFID technology and also normally includes pre-determined capacity. The summary of the mathematical model in optimization of the route of a waste collection invests in the essence of reduction or minimization of the entire transport cost while considering the capacity for the vehicle and all the exerted weight of the collected bins by also considering pre-determined zone. The mathematics refers to the ones indicated below. The mathematical programming model is as shows below (Alp & Emre, 2008). The provided linear model has an objective function marked by number (3) which facilitates the minimization of the total distance driven across. Typical Constraints (4) and (5) provides assurance that every town apart from the collection center is excellently entailed or entered and left precisely once. The other Constraints (6) and (7) normally help in considering the amount of the total waste collected on the outlined waste bin Ã¢â¬Å"iÃ¢â¬ which is typically the lower limit. There is entailed capacity for waste vehicle in high limit qi. There is now the presence of the constraint (8), in addition with (7), which normally equates to the qi to ci as long as the Ã¢â¬Å"iÃ¢â¬ is equivalent to first waste bin of the any entailed tour. From the functions, if Ã¢â¬Å"iÃ¢â¬ is not assigned as the first tour, constraint (9) would exactly illustrate the presented relation available between and the variables qi and xij. The process will initially look into if the arc (i, j) is prese nt in a waste collection tour or if not (Alp & Emre, 2008). The optimization approach on this mathematical model applies a linear programming and integer solver. The process is evaluated by the use of a special software referred to as Mosel Language or otherwise Dash
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Everyday Use by Alice Walker - Essay Example Mama decides to send Dee to school and when the latter comes back to visit them, she seems to be a changed woman. On the one hand, she respects rural life more, as she covets different rural things. On the other hand, she remains condescending in her attitude toward her family. The plot concerns the summary of life of Mama and her girls and DeeÃ¢â¬â¢s return from college life. Walker shows the theme of rural versus urban beliefs and lifestyles, the conflict of interests between modern and traditional cultures, as the traditional insist on functionalism, while the modern insists on objectification of the rural life, and the similarities of Dee to white oppressors. Urban life and rural life clash with each other. Mama loves her rural life and upbringing. The rural setting is her life and she is comfortable inside it. The exposition part of the story is when Mama describes her relationships with her daughters. Her relationship with Dee is tensed, since the latter hates their rural lif e. Mama is more at ease with Maggie, because she is a farm girl herself, but she does not like it that Maggie has no self-confidence at all. It can be also seen from MamaÃ¢â¬â¢s voice that she is proud of what she can do as a farmer: Ã¢â¬Å"I can work outside all day, breaking ice to get water for washing; I can eat pork liver cooked over the open fire minutes after it comes steaming from the hog.Ã¢â¬ She clearly takes pride in what she does. Like Maggie, however, she does not finish school and remain illiterate all her life. Dee wants an urban lifestyle. When she learns to read, she reads to her family, but with such an arrogant manner: Ã¢â¬Å"She used to read to us without pity; forcing words, lies, other folks' habits, whole lives upon us two, sitting trapped and ignorant underneath her voice.Ã¢â¬ Dee has such as sharp disdain for her own family, because they are poor and ignorant. The story also remarks of the conflict of interests between modern and traditional cultures . Conflict begins, when Dee wanted to take the quilts that Grandma Dee and Big Dee made. Mama refused to give it to her, because she promised these quilts as her gift for MaggieÃ¢â¬â¢s forthcoming wedding. Dee insisted on having her way, as usual, and Maggie gave in to Dee, but Mama did something extraordinary. The climax of the story is when mama insister her will upon Dee. She must have never done it before, and as a result, she also shows a precedent to Maggie that she cannot allow anyone to just push her around, especially when she also deserves her own place on earth. Because of this argument, Maggie got her quilts back. The story is written from the viewpoint of Mama. The language and structure reproduce the rural beliefs, practices, and attitudes of Mama. It is a story that describes the simple pleasures and needs of rural people, who are content with who they are and what they are doing with their life. This story also reveals that Dee is parallel to the white oppressors t hat Mama hates. Dee also looks down on her own family and believes that they are not making more of themselves. She sees herself as a superior being, because she is educated and Ã¢â¬Å"learnedÃ¢â¬ about the importance of heritage. Despite her education, she has no Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ breeding, because she did not learn how to respect her family and their simple dreams and happiness in life. The resolution of the story occurs when Maggie and Mama relax after Dee left: Ã¢â¬Å"
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Manilatown - Research Paper Example Because of the attractive agricultural jobs in California Central valley, numerous young Filipino men found their way in Stockton (Rao, 2006). The discriminatory and racism laws that existed until the mid 60s discouraged these young active men from undertaking the American dream of a United States Education, higher economic status and a family, even limiting them from crossing main street into the then considered white section of the city. Responding to these discriminations, the Filipino American pioneers constructed their own community on the south of the main street. They started business premises and organizations of all kinds so as to meet their own social and economic needs. These businesses included: grocery shops, hotels, restaurants, barber shops, the Daguhoy lodge, the Rizal Social club, a rescue mission and many others, hence the rise of the StocktonÃ¢â¬â¢s Little Manila (Rao, 2006). Filipino labor leaders such as Andy Imutan, Larry Itliong, Ernesto Mangaoang, Philip Ver a Cruz and Carlos Bulosan all worked out of Stockton at one point in time. Meetings of the historic labor unions were held at the Mariposa Hotel on Lafayette Street. Mangaoang and Mensalvas were influential to the ground breaking asparagus strike that came to an end in 1939. These courageous labor leaders and farm workers are the unsung heroes that were behind the success of the UFW and its most iconic leader Cesar Chavez. The population inhabits an area of only 38.55 Square kilometers making the City the most densely populated in the world. Filipino is the vernacular language, based mostly on the Tagalog of the neighboring areas, and this Manila kind of speaking Tagalog has developed to become the dialect of the Philippines. In the meantime, English is the language most widely used in business, education, and greatly in daily usage throughout the Philippine as a whole and Manila specifically. Quite a number of old people in the city are able to speak in basic Spanish this because i t was a compulsory subject in the Philippine colleges and universities. Many children of Latin America, India, Arab, Europe or other migrants also speak their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ languages at home besides Filipino or English (Nederveen, 2007). Because manilatown mostly borrow from Manila City, Christianity as a religion dominates the town with Roman Catholic comprising of 93.5% of the population. Manila city host Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila which is the oldest in the country. Because it is the seat of the Spanish colonial government in the past centuries, the city has been used as the base of many Roman Catholic missions to the Philippines. The city also hosts other faiths. There are many Taoist and Buddhist temples constructed by the Chinese community in Manila. There exists a large Hindu temple for the Indian population. The nightlife in Manila offers everything from casinos, discotheques, fashionable cafes and entertainment lounges. The city celebrates both national and civi c holidays. It also hosts the Feast of Black Nazarene which is celebrated on 9th January every year. As a tourism and cultural center of Philippine, the city acts as a home to numerous museums such as Museum Pambata, the Museum of Philippine Political History, the National Museum of the Philippines, the UST Museums of Arts and Science and the DLS-CSB Museum of contemporary Art and Design (Laguerre, 2002). Manilatown features a tropical savanna climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate; that is according to the Koppen climate classification
Friday, November 15, 2019
Management of Global Warming Impacts David Vellacott Title: How are the impacts of global warming best managed? Accompanying files: n/a Did you know that there is more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere today than at any point in the last 800,000 years?11 This is a massive contributor to global warming, is mostly induced by human activity and needs urgent attention. The impacts of global warming could feasibly be managed at a variety of scales, local, national and global, but before deciding which approach or combination of approaches is best, we must surely look at the causes, that way we potentially find a cure as opposed to merely treating the symptoms. Causes Over many centuries, CO2 levels have built up, trapped beneath the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s ozone layer, creating an ever thickening Ã¢â¬ËblanketÃ¢â¬â¢. This is a big problem for us as it will take many centuries for it to be dispersed. Furthermore, rainforests and large areas of vegetation have been removed. This exacerbates the problem of adding extra CO2 when we are essentially removing our natural carbon storage devices. There is a proven strong link between population size, economic activity and our consumer led lifestyle and global warming. As the population has risen over time, so has the level of production of greenhouse gases, further contributing to global warming (see Fig. 1) Fig. 17 China, the most populated country on the planet, which had a population of 1.241 billion in 1998 and 1.351 billion in 2012 4, has seen a rise of 100.1 million people in the space of 10 years and has become the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest contributor of emissions, therefore leading me to believe that one cause of the worsening of EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s global warming is down to overall population increase. However, it would be short sighted to say that this is the only determining factor. Globalisation and extensive economic development/industrialisation is fuelling ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s consumption of fossil fuels and itÃ¢â¬â¢s carbon footprint. Fig.2 below shows the Global Warming Emissions by Economic Sector 1 Fig. 2 If we could manage our use of fossil fuels, we can begin to control our carbon excesses, but that wonÃ¢â¬â¢t reverse the damage already done. Fig. 3 From a different, more focussed local perspective, a cause of climate change is the relentless mass production of new products. Most of the Ã¢â¬ËoldÃ¢â¬â¢ products were sent to landfill sites. Eventually this emits methane (a greenhouse gas). It is only recently (last 20 years) that we have seen the introduction of extensive recycling schemes to try and alleviate this. This allows re-use of materials, helping to reduce emissions from factories producing new materials, as now there is less demand for them, reduces emissions from landfill sites and helps oil supplies last longer. If local schemes like this are continued to be emphasised as they are now, I believe this will have a significant impact on climate change and global warming. Impacts Local Case Study: Telford, Shropshire Telford is an urban area with a population size of 155,000 (2010). TelfordÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is tertiary based, with some manufacturing. Telford Wrekin Council reported emissions of 18,728 tonnes from the usage of gas, electricity and oil within its property portfolio which includes schools, libraries and leisure centres13. Telford and Wrekin is home to a coal fired power station (owned currently by E.on), which contributes significantly to our local CO2 emissions. As a result of national governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s pressure on local councils to act upon the effects of global warming (Agenda 21), Telford and Wrekin council operates a recycling scheme as a way to cut down on the amount of household waste sent to landfill. Reusable items from households are collected fortnightly and sorted at a recycling centre in the town. The scheme is encouraging in every way. The page about their recycling explains why you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to pay an upfront cost (definitely a positive, good for getting the public on board): because the council saves a great deal of money by recycling; this is cheaper than sending rubbish to landfill. I believe the Telford and Wrekin council runs their recycling scheme very well, ensuring each household has the right containers and are adequately advertising the programme. Since recycling was introduced into Telford, there must surely have been a huge reduction in the amount of rubbish sent to landfill, thus reducing the volume of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. TelfordÃ¢â¬â¢s recycling scheme, however, may not have come into existence if the effects of global warming had not been recognised. [used 15] The council are also very conscious about the amount of gases released from industrial processes, believing it is very easy to let it get out of hand, to pose a health risk and to harm land, water and air quality through pollution. Therefore, they use a regime called Ã¢â¬ËEnvironmental PermittingÃ¢â¬â¢, also known as pollution prevention control, whereby Ã¢â¬Å"it is an offence for any person/company to operate a permitted (prescribed) activity without a valid permit.Ã¢â¬ 14 National The UK government is keen to mitigate the effects of climate change by looking to reduce our reliance upon fossil fuels for the generation of electricity. It is encouraging energy companies to look at alternative sources eg renewables like wind and wave and is also encouraging individuals to Ã¢â¬Ëdo their bitÃ¢â¬â¢ by part funding their investment in solar panels Ã¢â¬â many homeowners may see this as the crucial time to invest in solar panels for the roof of their house. This is seemingly confirmed by governmental minister Greg Barker. He states: Ã¢â¬Å"Solar PV can play a central role in meeting this challenge [global warming]. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a genuinely exciting energy technology which has already seen rapid growth and enjoys strong public support. I want this growth to continue and to help us push further ahead in the global raceÃ¢â¬ Global I believe that the amount of energy produced from renewable methods will increase. It has been predicted that wind and solar power production will increase 4% by 2018 from 2011 figures.2 In time, the polar ice caps will melt as a result of the higher temperatures brought about by global warming. This will cause a rise in sea levels. It is predicted that by 2100, the global sea level is estimated to rise 28 to 98 centimetres (a maximum of more than three feet)10. Having a warmer planet will interfere with countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ climates. It has been predicted that on average, there will be more warmer days, and fewer colder; there has been a rise of 0.7Ã °C over the last century.1 Even in our country, UK, we can see the changes to our climate: in recent years, we have had more prolonged spells of sunny weather in the summer months, and much more severe snowy conditions, eg January 2011. In addition, the extreme weather will result in a global increase in the amount of money put towards predicting what may happen. And when this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough, even more money will be spent reducing the overall impact of climate change. Global warming could lead to water becoming harder to come by in some places. There may be increasing competition over water, which could lead to conflict between nations and areas of the world. How is global warming being managed? Global In recent years, many countries have created laws that restrict the amount of emissions they produce. For example, the Kyoto Protocol was set up to attempt to control the problem. It was intended to monitor the greenhouse emissions produced by all countries that signed, and reduce them by 5% below 1990 levels by 2012; some countries, such as UK, have subsequently set their own targets (UK 12.5% by 2012)6. But not all countries in the world have signed, so in my opinion, the protocol is not at its most effective. If all countries signed up to the Kyoto Protocol, I strongly believe that this would be an extremely effective method of reducing climate change because the whole world would be tackling a global problem as one, hopefully better than using many different methods which may lead to confusion. National Recently, the UK has raised road taxes, perhaps in a bid to discourage the public from buying and using cars emitting large volumes of harmful gases. Cars that emit high or excessive amounts of emissions are charged a higher road tax, and the opposite for those that produce a lesser amount. However, I feel that this Ã £140 road tax fee would not be enough to discourage most motorists. Many may see this as simply an additional cost to pay for the car, rather than thinking about or realising the true reason for the extra cost the government has imposed. I truly believe that even the smallest changes will have some impact on the overall global warming picture. In the UK a few years ago, homeowners were strongly encouraged to purchase energy efficient light bulbs. Traditional high wattage incandescent light bulbs were deemed to be inefficient, and people started to buy energy efficient light bulbs to replace these. Using an energy efficient light bulb rather than a 60-watt incandescent bulb will save approximately Ã £20 in bulb costs, last 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs, use two-thirds less energy, and give off 70 percent less heat. If every UK household installed 3 Compact Fluorescent light bulbs, enough energy would be saved in a year to supply all street lighting in the UK12. I would say that this small change is indeed a very efficient method of reducing the effects of global warming and is very economically and environmentally viable. Local In cities such as London, a congestion charge has been put into action since the year 2002. Between 07:00 and 18:00 Monday to Friday, vehicles are charged for using particular roads in an area of London. This was introduced to encourage motorists to use their cars less, resulting in a decrease in emissions. On the first day 190,000 vehicles moved into or within the zone during charging hours, a decrease of around 25% on normal traffic levels, partly due to it also being the half-term school holiday8. However, this congestion charge area may backfire. I think that there would be, before and after the congestion charge was imposed in 2002, exactly the same number of vehicles wishing travel to destinations at these times, if not more. The tax may in turn bring the opposite to the desired effect- vehicles would travel a further distance around the area to avoid paying the money, thus increasing harmful emissions produced, not what the scheme was implemented for. Fig.4: The congestion charge area. Scenarios Local Case Study- Proactive There are many scenarios that could emerge as a result of the pressure from the local council and the national government alike. Telford and Wrekin councilÃ¢â¬â¢s recycling scheme could be increased in capacity in relation to its success- we could see in the future more frequent collections, possibly once a week, and an even bigger reduction in the amount of waste this town sends to landfill, again reducing the effects of climate change. Another option for the future may be using more public transport than we do currently. In Telford, 2011, there were 84,671 cars and vans in the area16. That equates to an average of 1.3 cars or vans per household in the area. In addition, in Telford there are 1406 households with 4 or more cars16. If these 1406 households reduced down to one car and depended more on public transport, there would be 81,893 cars in the area, only a small reduction. Would depending on public transport more in this area then be worthwhile? Global Case Study Laissez Faire vs Proactive What if we do nothing? It is after all the cheapest option! Can Ã¢â¬ËnatureÃ¢â¬â¢ protect itself? If we consider unmanaged coastal erosion, nature usually Ã¢â¬ËstopsÃ¢â¬â¢ in time. Sea level rise will inevitably Ã¢â¬ËdrownÃ¢â¬â¢ low lying countries but it is a slow process, so we have time to relocate those people or to manage the effects eg building coastal defences to protect them. Alternatively, we look to generate power solely from renewable sources; this way, very few or no emissions will be released into the atmosphere. However, this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t solve the here and now issue of the current emission levels! One viable solution for the future may be to avoid transporting goods far distances across the world, such as to the UK from China. But, factories will need to be built in the countries the goods are intended for in order to use less Ã¢â¬Ëair milesÃ¢â¬â¢. However, this is not completely feasible as some countries have very little room to accommodate the factories. It does however mean that the emissions impacts are felt in the place that created them, which is fairer than at present. Conclusion I believe that some of the best ways to combat the impacts of global warming include: Reduce- Re-use-Recycle Ã¢â¬â achievable by all global inhabitants Change/convert to energy efficient appliances Ã¢â¬â mostly applicable to NIC and MEDC residents Using fewer Ã¢â¬Ëair milesÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â mostly applicable to NIC and MEDC residents Increasing the use of public transport Ã¢â¬â applicable to most global urban inhabitants Ã¢â¬â but how do we convince them to leave their cars behind? The smallest changes can, collectively make the biggest difference. If everybody could pull together to address the issues surrounding global warming and climate change, I believe we can achieve a sustainable future. However, I feel that we need to better educate people so that they do not adopt the selfish, Ã¢â¬ËcouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t care less, not my problemÃ¢â¬â¢ approach. Bibliography http://www.climatehotmap.org/about/global-warming-causes.html http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Renewable-Energy/10-Renewable-Energy-Statistics-you-Might-Not-Know.html https://www.gov.uk/government/news/solar-energy-central-to-renewables-expansion http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL http://www.worldcoal.org/coal/uses-of-coal/coal-electricity/ Page 83, GCSE Geography OCR Specification B, Bowness, Ellen, Brazier, Joe et al,CGP, 2009 http://quietmike.org/2013/05/28/global-warmings-biggest-contributors/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_congestion_charge#Immediate_impact http://environment.about.com/od/globalwarming/tp/globalwarmtips.htm http://e360.yale.edu/feature/rising_waters_how_fast_and_how_far_will_sea_levels_rise/2702/ http://www.dosomething.org/actnow/tipsandtools/11-facts-about-global-warming http://publications.naturalengland.org.uk/publication/51002 http://www.telford.gov.uk/news/article/398/councils_carbon_reduction_recognised http://www.telford.gov.uk/info/200075/pollution/319/environmental_permitting http://www.telford.gov.uk/faqs/200084/recycling_and_rubbish http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadTableView.do?a=7b=6275277c=telfordd=13e=14g=6386646i=1001x1003x1004m=0r=1s=1386883440731enc=1dsFamilyId=2483
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Critical Analysis for Ã¢â¬Å"Why Western History MattersÃ¢â¬ by Donald Kagan Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Why Western History MattersÃ¢â¬ is an essay adapted from a speech Donald Kagan delivered to the National Association of Scholars, and was reprinted in the December 28, 1994, issue of the Wall Street Journal. Throughout KaganÃ¢â¬â¢s essay, he describes the essential need for the college course, Western History. He does so by examining older cultures and explaining why they were quintessential to the past and to our future development as a society. I strongly concur with KaganÃ¢â¬â¢s standpoint of the necessity of history, and the realization of how exactly our flourishing society came about. History is a key constituent in determining who we are; for to determine who we are one must first know from whence they came. In the words of George Santayana, Ã¢â¬Å"Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat itÃ¢â¬ . Donald Kagan argues for the requisiteness of Western History by describing older cultures, and then explaining how these older cultures became a key influence in what our society has become today. He examines the ancient Greek, Christian, and English culture influences that helped form our country. Throughout his essay, his depth of historical research is quite evident. He uses historical research of past cultures to imply the necessity of knowing where we, as Americans, came from. This approach helps establish the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s credibility, and makes his presentation more plausible. The first ancient civilization that Kagan highlights is the Greek. He writes of their republic city-states, and pioneering of a Ã¢â¬Å"political life come to be shared by a relatively large portion of peopleÃ¢â¬ . He uses the Greek culture as an influence of science and reason. Ã¢â¬Å"The Greeks exposed everything they perceivedÃ¢â¬ânatural, human and divineÃ¢â¬âto the searching examination of reason.Ã¢â¬ Finally he describes the Greek quest for virtue and morality. He uses these examples to show how similar our culture is to the Greek. Second, Kagan explains of the Christian influence on our society. With the controversial idea of Christianity, Ã¢â¬Å"Philosophy led to the powerful divisive quarrels about the nature of God and other theological questionsÃ¢â¬ . The influence of Christianity established itself within great writers of American history, who helped shape our country. Such as John Locke, who influenced our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation with the idea of God given Ã¢â¬Å"natural rightsÃ¢â¬ , life, liberty and property. All of which define our personal freedom today. Finally, he discusses the influence of the English Revolution.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
African American Civil right and Equality Tara Faircloth HIS 204 Mr. Galano October 28, 2011 The topic I have chosen to write about is how African Americans worked to end segregation, discrimination, and isolation to obtain equality and civil rights. Ever since the African Americans were slaves they have had to come a long way to get where they are today. Some have even held positions in political offices, managed corporations, and gained all the rights that everyone else has. But, itÃ¢â¬â¢s never always been that way. African Americans were treated unjustly and had to go through things that most people cannot understand and have never had to endure. Over the generations African Americans have had to deal with many different struggles. Some of these struggles were unnecessary. Such as, them having to be a witness to their parents death, men would be witness to the rape of their mothers or wives, children being murdered or beaten. Back in those days the African Americans had no voice or rights. When they first came to the United States, African Americans were sold into slavery, which meant them or family members were auctioned to the slave owners. On top of this and other struggles, African Americans had to bare unmentionable punishments. They were sprayed with high power water hoses, beaten with sticks and wipes, arrested for no apparent reason, and even murdered. Between the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s many people took part in actions to end the segregation, discrimination, and isolation among the African Americans. Some of these people included, Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr. who took part in nonviolent actions, which involved sit-ins, boycotts, marches and other peaceful types of protests. For example, On December 1, 1955 Rosa Parks who was also known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Mother of the Civil Rights MovementÃ¢â¬ who refused to give up her seat to a white passenger. Because she was disobedient by law she was arrested, tried, and convicted for misconduct. After Rosa Parks made her stand, word spread within the African American communities. Fifty African American leaders put together the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which demanded more humane transportation system. The boycott lasted 381 days before the local ordinance segregating African Americans and whites on public buses was abolished. In 1965, a federal court forced the buses to become desegregated. Martin Luther King Jr. was an American activist, clergyman, as well as a leader in the African American Civil Rights Movement. He is to this day still known as an iconic figure for the advancement of civil rights within the United States and in other parts of the world, as well as for using nonviolent methods that he learned from GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings. Martin Luther King Jr. s made to be a heroic leader in the history of modern American liberalism. When King started the civil rights movement he was a pastor at a Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, for just over a year when the civil rights advocate contested racial segregation on city buses. The activists followed King and formed the Montgomery Improvement Association which boycotted the transit system. Finally, since the African America ns were ready to do something to support their rights they followed Kings Advice to Ã¢â¬Å"work with grim and firm determination to gain justice on the buses in the cityÃ¢â¬ . He was respected and it was thought that his family connections and professional standing would enable him to find other pastorates, if the boycott was to fail. On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was shot standing outside on the balcony of his second story hotel room. The bullet went through his check smashing his jaw, and then went through his spinal cord just before it lodged inside his shoulder. Martin Luther King Jr. was pronounced dead later that night. African Americans began participating in boycotts, marches, and sit-ins to get legislation passed to overcome their degrading issues. Some cases of these are, they boycotted when Rosa Parks was arrested, during sit-ins they would sit where the white people section was. By doing any of these actions it created more issues for them such as being beaten by white men and women including the police. Although, the African Americans were just trying to stand up for what they believed in the white people did not agree. The white people had very different views on what they believed were supposed to be the way of things. While the civil rights movement took on two different paths which were the non-violent actions by Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr. there were also violent acts that were the strategies of Malcolm X who went by a strict principle of violence to get even with the whites that committed crimes against the African Americans. Malcolm X was born May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. He was the son of a Baptist minister, who was an admirer of Marcus Garvey. Garvey was the African American Nationalist leader back in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s the advocated the Ã¢â¬Å"back-to-AfricaÃ¢â¬ movement. MalcolmÃ¢â¬â¢s family had to move around a lot because they were harassed by the Ku Klux Klan. For example, their home in Michigan was set on fire by the Ku Klux Klan which resulted in his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. At the age of fifteen Malcolm began a criminal life of gambling, selling drugs, burglary, and hustling. In 1946, Malcolm was given ten years in prison for burglary at this time is when he began to transform his life. He transformed his life by studying the teachings of Muhammad and practicing this religion faithfully. After he expanded his vocabulary he began to understand the racial teachings of his new found religion; which believed the white man was evil, and they were doomed by Allah and that the best things for the black man to do was to separate himself from Western, white civilization-culturally, politically, physically, and psychologically. In conclusion, the African Americans had to endure a lot of pain and humiliation before they could have their own rights. If it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t for everyone that took part in the civil rights movement African Americans probably never would have received recognition and being treated the same as the white man.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Informative Essay Sample on Princess Diana What Is Know About Her Snap, click followed by dozens of flashing lights. Diana Spencer got out of her vehicle to go to one of her many charity organizations. Everyday Lady Spencer had to deal with the public. Lady Diana Francis Spencer led a privileged background. She was born on July 1, 1961. She was supposed to be a boy. But boy were her parents in for a surprise. Diana grew up at Park House in Norfolk. In 1967, When Diana was six, her parents separated. Eventually they were divorced and both of them went on to marry again. Diana and the other children found this very difficult. They saw their mother, but continued to live with their father. A series of nannies took care of them when they were not at boarding school. From the age of six, Diana went to Riddlesworth Hall in Norfolk and then to West Heath in Kent. But eight years later she left West Heath School without graduating. During the next three years the, Spencer familyÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth proved very useful. Diana was given her own apartment in London, where she lived with two close friends. She did not have to earn her living, so she took whatever jobs appealed to her. This shows that she was not afraid to get her hands dirty doing something for someone else. She worked as a nanny and also helped the teachers at the Young England Kindergarten School. By the age of 19, Diana was a tall, shy, likable young woman. Like most people her age, she enjoyed dancing, partying, and watching television. Her family and friends called jokingly called her Ã¢â¬Å"DuchessÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Duch,Ã¢â¬ but unlike some privileged young people she did not seem snobbish or proud. She had plenty of friends who were boys, but until she was almost 20, she had not had a steady boyfriend. That was about to change. In November 1977, Diana went to a weekend party in a country house. One of the people there was Charles Windsor, the Prince of Wales and heir to the throne. Diana had known the Prince as a child, but not very well, he was 12 years older than she, and lately Diana had thought of him only as her sister SarahÃ¢â¬â¢s friend. That weekend, Charles noticed Diana. Later he remembered her as Ã¢â¬Å"a very jolly, amusing, and attractive 16 year old, full of fun.Ã¢â¬ As time passed, they got to know each other better. In mid-1980 rumors began to spread that Charles and Diana were about to get engaged. So many media reporters pestered Diana to know the truth. On February 24, 1981, the world was let in on the secret. It was announced that Charles, now 31, and Diana, 19, were to marry. After the announcement, Diana moved out of her apartment. First she moved to Clarence House, the Queen MotherÃ¢â¬â¢s London home, then into Buckingham Palace. There she was better protected from the media who hounded her day in and day out. The wedding was planned for July 29, 1981. Massive preparations had to be made for this huge public event. Diana also had to prepare herself for becoming the Princess of Wales in 71 years. After July 29, she would be the third most important woman in Great Britain, after only the Queen and the Queen Mother. How was the former kindergarten helper going to cope? What, exactly, would she be expected to do? First and foremost, she would have to give birth to a male heir for Prince Charles, a son who would one day become King himself. She would also have to accompany Charles on his various appearances in Britain and overseas. Sometimes she would have to appear on her own, and serve as the patron or president of organizations. In addition to her public duties, Diana would have to deal with men and women from the media. The British royal family already fascinated millions. As its newest and prettiest member, Diana would be sure to attract a lot of attention, at least until people got used to her. As her wedding approached, Diana began almost visibly to shrink under the pressures. On July 29, the great day arrived; she disappointed no one as she walked up the long aisle of St. Pauls Cathedral on the arm of her father. A congregation of 2,500 people watched Diana marry Charles. A further 750 million shared in the event on television. The fairy tale continued as the newlyweds enjoyed a long honeymoon, which included a Mediterranean cruise on the royal yacht Britannia. Then Charles and Diana took up residence in their two new homes; Kensington palace in London and Highgrove House in Gloucester. Charles and DianaÃ¢â¬â¢s first royal engagement was a three-day, 435-mile tour of Wales. This is when the public first to reacts to Diana. If Charles walked on one side of the street during a walkabout, the crowds would groan because his fairly-tale princess was too far away on the other. This was the beginning. Similar scenes would soon be repeated all over the world. Diana had always been quite shy with strangers. Now it was her job to appear before large crowds of them. She was also expected to talk briefly worth some of them, to ask questions, and to make comments. This did not come naturally to her. But people were charmed by the obvious efforts she was making, and the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in her grew. The attention became greater than it had been before the wedding. This interest grew when the royal couple announced that Princess Diana was pregnant. On June 21, 1982, ten days before her 21st birthday, Diana gave birth to a baby boy, William. Ã¢â¬Å"Thank goodness,Ã¢â¬ said the delighted Queen, Ã¢â¬Å"he hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t got ears like his father.Ã¢â¬ At once little William became the heir-apparent to the British throne. On September 15, 1984, Diana gave birth to a second son. His name was Henry but Diana called him Harry. An important job now had been done. As the old saying goes, she had produced Ã¢â¬Å"an heir and a spare.Ã¢â¬ Although Diana found it hard to live in the media spotlight, motherhood came more easily to her. She lavished love and attention on her sons as they grew up. Two such boys could never hope to lead normal lives. But Diana made sure they had fun at theme parks and pizza restaurants, along with the more solemn future public duties. But behind the happy family smiles, all was not well. The stress of being Princess of Wales was making Diana ill. Often she looked painfully thin, and in later years she had not only suffered from postnatal depression but also from bulimia nervosa. In spite of her health problems, Diana had to carry out a lot of duties, which went with the job of being a member of the royal family. Gradually Diana overcame her shyness to become an effective and sincere public speaker. She took a personal interest in whatever organization she was involved. When she became patron on the British Deaf Association, for instance, she learned sign language and frequently used in public. Thus she brought a very human touch to her work as a Princess. The Princess made a huge impact on the world of fashion. Clothing made by British clothes designers became more popular after Diana wore them. And Diana never seemed to look less than perfect in a photograph; even she was snapped off duty. But behind that goddess like image, there was a real person- antis person felt her was far from perfect. Ã¢â¬Å"She was expected by the royal system to be in clothes horse and an obedient wife.Ã¢â¬ In 1988 Diana reached a turning point in her life. She decided to seek medical help for her eating disorder. She began a new fitness regimen with the advice of a trainer. She helped AIDS organizations and kids with seriously disadvantaged, neglected or dying form diseases. By the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, as traditions changed elsewhere in British life, the royal family began to look old-fashioned to some people. Others asked why there was a monarchy at all. Diana believed that the British royal family had to appear more up to date if they were to stay popular with the British people. But Prince Charles did not agree. There were rumors going around that Diana and Charles were having other disagreements too. In December 1992, there was a royal sensation. It was announced that the marriage of the QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s son was broken up, and that he and his wife were going to separate. The fairy tale was over. Charles and Diana had no immediate plans to divorce. They set up separate households at the Kensington Palace, and then continued to carry out their public duties alone. The media soon turned negative toward Princess Diana. For a year Diana tried to withdraw from public life as much as possible to win some time and space for herself and her sons. The media was interested in her new male friends, and also in a female friend of Prince Charles, Camilla Parker-Bowles. On August 28, 1996, the royal couple made their divorce final. During the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, public interest in DianaÃ¢â¬â¢s love life reached fever pitch. Millions of words were written and broadcasted about whom she might marry next. And hundreds of photographs were printed of the Princess off duty, in the company of various male friends. For years the paparazzi had been buzzing around world-famous celebrities, taking unwelcome photos, then selling them to the magazine that paid them the most. On DianaÃ¢â¬â¢s final journey, Paparazzi on motorcycles were following a car carrying the Princess in the early hours of the morning of August 31, 1997. She was spending the weekend in a Paris with a new friend, wealthy Dodi Al-Fayed. Their speeding car ran out of control in a tunnel. In the crash that followed the driver and Dodi died instantly, Diana died a couple of hours later and the bodyguard was the only one that lived. At the age of 36, she died in the hospital. The relationship between the British people and its royal families has had many ups and downs. The current Queen, Elizabeth II, has remained personally popular, but her family has been widely criticized for behaving in an unsuitable way. Princess Diana once said that she wanted Ã¢â¬Å"to do, not just to be.Ã¢â¬ Being just a figurehead was not enough for her. But it is difficult to know exactly what the British want their royal family to do. Suitable behavior means different people, as was clearly shown by the widely differing public responses to the career of Diana herself.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Tonia Beaver Values Essay Tonia Beaver Values Essay Tonia Beaver Office Procedures Values Essay I have very strong values about getting work done on time, and I am very picky about making sure it is done correctly and to the best of my ability. I also believe in being honest and not cheating or helping anyone else to cheat. I was raised by my grandparents, and they taught me to always plan ahead and get things done early so that I know that I have turned them in, and so I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to rush to get things done, so that they would be done correctly. If you get your work done before itÃ¢â¬â¢s due, it gives you more time to do other things that might need to be done, or be able to get started on another project. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really have a culture effecting my values, as I am sure there are many people in different cultures who do have to deal with how it effects them and the way they do things. The only thing I dealt with being catholic as I am sure it is the same pretty much in all other cultures is being honest, donÃ¢â¬â¢t lie to get ahead. I have had to make a couple ethical decisions throughout my life, one was at work, when I had a supervisor ask me to do her work so she could leave early for a hair appointment. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think it was fair but since I was just an assistant I did it, so that she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t try and get me in trouble, but then it started becoming a regular thing a couple times a week, so finally when I started getting frustrated, another supervisor asked me what was wrong, and why was it taking me so long to get done
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Exercises - Research Paper Example This gives the appearance that I am not in my room. I love my colleagues, but they often distract me with gossip and stories about their personal lives. I do not want to visit during my planning period. Each day I try to make concrete lesson plans for the next several days. I then review these plans and make adjustments at the end of each day. I never take lesson planning home with me. There is something about being in my classroom that actually helps me to visualize what will happen (or what is supposed to happen) with each lesson. Conversely, I never grade at school. Grading is kept for the end of the day. I actually find it relaxing in some ways. I will often put on soft background music and pour myself something refreshing to drink. Scoring writing does take more of my concentration. I usually will sit in my kitchen in silence to do this sort of grading. Everything else is done at a lap desk curled-up on the couch. Grading is usually the last chore I do before going to bed. I same all of my documents directly to the hard drive of my computer. I rarely back them up because my computer is synchronized with the servers at school each day. I probably should have my own personal back up on a thumb drive of some sort. This would be a good practice because the tech personnel at my school are not really all that good a retrieving lost information. I know some teachers that have lost hundreds of documents and have never gotten them back because a server malfunctioned. I think IÃ¢â¬â¢ll start using a thumb drive tomorrow. After viewing the video and reading the documents, I can see that I have good time management skills but there is room for improvement. I have a very good schedule for accomplishing all of the tasks required of a teacher, but I sometimes lack focus on those tasks. I do not group like tasks together very well. For example, I answer e-mails as they arrive in my mailbox all day long. This is not a good
Friday, November 1, 2019
Smoking among college students - Research Paper Example It is important to know the actual motives behind smoking before taking any kind of preventive action. Most of the people start smoking during their teenage due to peer pressure or need for approval by their friends. Some youngsters also believe that smoking actually helps them keep in shape and have self-control, while others say it makes them look cool. According to the statistical data, the rate of smoking has increased by 30 % during 1993-1997 amongst the college students. Studies show that the measures which can be taken by the colleges authorities in order to reduce the level of smoking amongst the young students. Experts believe that taking preventive measures is better than abrupt prohibition from smoking which can cause the opposite effect on the students. The high rate of smoking among college students can be explained by aggressive advertising and promotional activities aimed to increase the size of the market. The glamorous ads casting handsome and beautiful models, actually tempts the youngsters to smoke. Tobacco industry focuses on sales promotion more than any other industry in the world. Companies spend a huge amount of investment to reach adolescents. Adolescents, of 18-24 years, become the main target market for the tobacco industry. The companies distribute free cigarettes outside the concerts and college clubs in order to attract more and more people towards their brands. The industry has also involved the youngster in the promotional activities. These kinds of aggressive promotion activities have drawn a huge number of younger lots to smoking. Promotional activities in bars and night clubs were started during 1980s. The level of tobacco consumption among students was indistinct, but the some field researches show that nearly every college student was involved in those promotional activities during 1990s. It has been predicted that the college students will become main consumers of tobacco in the next few years. The tobacco companies launch their promotional campaign mostly in the urban localities, trying to trap the young consumers through various advertising medium and techniques. Even the students who don't have enough exposure to the bars and night clubs can be influenced by the heavy advertising by different brands. For instance, Asian American students have become the main target for many promotional campaigns aiming to find new customers. University Health Centers can help to prevent and reduce smoking rate by educating the students about the diseases caused by smoking. Smoking should also be strictly prohibited within the college premises. Psychologists have deduced the various ways to control smoking habits within the younger students by providing different psychological treatments for quitting smoking. They have also worked upon finding the relation between smoking and media exposure of the individuals. Further in their research works psychologists have also tried to analyze the factors which can contribute to motivate or de-motivate individuals from smoking. The previous studies have classified smokers by their age, gender and race and have provided the statistical data accordingly. The main theme of the paper is to examine the relation which exists between smoking and factors such as the peer pressure, stress and depression. METHODOLOGY
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Implementation of STEM Education Programs in Schools - Article Example Implementation in this context means an amalgamation of concepts from the three disciplines. In the article, the authors are of the thought that it would be tasking to effectively implement teaching and learning of these concepts without incorporating the contribution of languages, arts as well as the social sciences (Satchwell and Loepp, 2002). The process curriculum has seen an effectual implementation of the STEM subjects in schools. The successful implementation as the authors argue, involved the contribution of the project team, and the design panel who were involved in revising the curriculum so as to incorporate the needs of all learners (Satchwell and Loepp, 2002). Information from all stakeholders was collected, all in an attempt to ensure quality implementation of the STEM program. Through the process, the learners in Middle schools have been indicated to not only explore the ideas in the concerned disciplines but also apply the ideas in various contexts (Satchwell and Loepp, 2002). This is a clear elucidation of the fact that implementation of the STEM curriculum in schools has been successful. However, it is significant to draw attention to the verity that the authors clearly emphasize that the implementation process has been faced with a myriad of challenges. Among the challenges involve the teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ need to learn novel content in the present setting (Satchwell and Loepp, 2002). Some teachers have also had a negative attitude towards implementing the STEM curriculum; thus, hindering successful implementation. Authentic tests have also been a major impediment as the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ progress was not consistent throughout the learning process (Satchwell and Loepp, 2002). Nonetheless, the authors appreciate the fact that classroom management has played an immense role in ensuring that STEM disciplines are implemented (Satchwell and Loepp, 2002). Schools that managed to design tests that
Monday, October 28, 2019
Understanding Non-verbal Communication Essay Communication has always been an integral component of accomplishing goals and objectives of any institution and organization. It is used as a tool in conveying information and promoting the values, principles and objectives of any institution. Likewise, non-verbal communication is also a process deemed vital in the interplay of individuals within an organization or group. Seeing this, by adequately understanding the different ways that people can communicate, individuals can harness the needed boost towards better facilitation, management, and cooperation needed. In the end, by boosting the skills needed to maximize non-verbal communication, each one can extract new approaches to make practice more effective and efficient. Understanding Non-verbal communication Before elaborating on the relevance of non-verbal communication, it is essential that people understand the meaning of the concept. By grasping this concept, each one can effectively apply the strategies and methods of intensifying and providing the needed avenues for change. With these, the term refers to the imparting of messages to parties via other channels other than words (Fowler, 2006). This method can be considered innate in our biological makeup as humans. Ã¢â¬Å"Non-verbal behaviour predates verbal communication because individuals, since birth, rely first on non-verbal means to express themselvesÃ¢â¬ (Besson, et. al. , 2005, p. 1). At the same time, this process comprises of different parts and revolve around (1) visual, (2) tactile, (3) vocal, and (3) use of time space and image (CBA. edu, 2006). These things in turn are manifested by using different practices such as facial expression, body language, etc. (BOMI, 2006). All these actions seek to relay information and denote a particular meaning in the action given or imparted to the receiver. Seeing this, it is then essential to underline the ways that people interact non-verbally. By doing this, there can be better avenues for increased understanding among the speaker and receiver engaged in a conversation. Intonation and Tone of voice The use of intonation and tone of voice are relevant ideas to consider as far as non-verbal communication is concerned. The firs concept involves deciphering the Ã¢â¬Å"end of an entity of information, which Ã¢â¬â in written communication Ã¢â¬â is shown by means of a comma, semicolon, point, exclamation mark or question markÃ¢â¬ (Besson, et. al. , 2005, p. 3). Comprehending this can benefit the individual in actively determining the mood and feelings of the speaker. On the other hand, tone of voice is another essential component of non-verbal communication. In this process, it seeks to connote the attitude of the speaker towards a chosen area or topic being discussed (Fowler, 2006). This is essentially vital for listeners to decipher because it can give them the idea surrounding the overall intention of the speaker is relaying to its target audience. Gestures and Facial Expressions Another significant element that individuals should understand is the relative message that gestures and facial expressions can give to the overall idea that the speaker wants to imply. Looking at it, these two ideas revolve around the body movements that are aligned with the verbal component (Your Communication Skills, 2007). These things in turn also cater to express the feelings, sentiments and opinions of individuals towards a specific issue being discussed. Seeing this, by carefully observing the speakers and listeners, one can effectively decode their responses towards the information conveyed to them. Interpreting Non-verbal Communication Interpretation remains an essential element in creating proficiency and better insight in the practice of non-verbal communication. In here, the individual must carefully observe and look into cues that can cultivate and supplement their verbal responses on a given issue or subject. These things can then eliminate areas of confusion, conflict and disagreements between individuals and groups. One important way to practice non-verbal communication is by engaging in face-to-face interaction. This practice can help one individual to actively observe and apply the related components of the idea. Ã¢â¬Å"Face-to-face communication provides immediate feedback and is the richest information medium because of the many information channels available through voice, eye contact, posture, blush, and body languageÃ¢â¬ (BOMI, 2006, p. 1). Seeing this, listening and observation are the key elements to make this endeavor successful. In addition, face-to-face interaction can enhance new principles and objectives that can create and establish strong relationships among actors within a particular group/organization. This process can in turn provide the needed outcomes in achieving potential benefits for all individuals involved. Ã¢â¬Å"It is the appropriate medium for delegating tasks, coaching, disciplining, instructing, sharing information, answering questions, checking progress toward objectives, and developing and maintaining interpersonal relationsÃ¢â¬ (BOMI, 2006). Looking at the listening component, this is relevant in better comprehending the term because of its ability to infuse better appreciation and understanding of the topic. This practice can create sensitivity not only in the verbal component but also cater towards extracting verbal cues if properly coordinated with the proper observation skills (Giddens and Griffiths, 2006). Moreover, Ã¢â¬Å"when one listens they have to hear the emotion in the words and read between the lines of the words to get the full meaning of a transmission that is receivedÃ¢â¬ (Your Communication Skills, 2007, p. 1). Thus, it is essential for these two actions to be properly incorporated when one engages into dialogue with others. Looking into cultural differences Since communication is a social construct, another essential element that should be looked into is the occurrence of cultural differences among people/group engaged in conversation. With the increasing diversity and interaction within different environments, it is possible that individuals interpret actions in different ways. Seeing this, Ã¢â¬Å"a successful interpretation of non-verbal elements conveyed by the speaker requires the same understanding of the symbols shared between interpreter and speakerÃ¢â¬ (Besson, et. al. , 2006, p. 1). Realizing this situation, it can beneficial if people can take into account the relevance of cultural background in communication practices. One thing to determine these non-verbal cues is becoming aware and sensitive to these things and uses them as an instrument for interpretation and analysis (Fowler, 2006). Rather than seeing this as a barrier of conducting effective communication and interaction, culture must be used as a medium of increasing competence and correctly interpret the cues and symbols given (Giddens and Griffiths, 2006). Opening up avenues for feedback Like any other social construct, communication should also try to reach out and open up new avenues for change and improvement. This then entitles a particular organization/group to come up with new ideas aligned on creating better understanding on the interaction process and take into consideration the impact of non-verbal communication in the achievement of goals and processes (CBA. edu, 2006). Likewise, it opens up the potential of filling in the gaps within the communication process and extracts newer outcomes in the process. Seeing this, instead of correcting and finding fault in the shortcomings of many individuals in such process, constructive feedbacks can then be applied to create a renewed understanding and commitment. Under this procedure, several methods can be introduced to extract opinions and facilitate the needed avenues for development. Conclusion To conclude, non-verbal communication remains to be an important component to consider as far as communication and dialogue is concerned. This allows individuals to effectively and efficiently decipher the needed information that can support the essence of interaction and exchange of ideas. Due to this, careful considerations must be made in order to fully comprehend the impact of the concept. By taking account the factors that affect non-verbal communication and creating a feedback mechanisms, better outcomes can be administered and enhance interpersonal relationship among individuals/groups involved. References Besson, C. , Graf, D. , Hartung, I. , Kropfhausser, B. and Voisard, S. (2005) The Importance of Non-verbal communication in Professional Interpretation in aiic. Retrieved March 27, 2009 from, http://www. aiic. net/ViewPage. cfm/page1662. htm#2 BOMI (2006) Effective Communication in the Workplace. Retrieved March 27, 2009 1-5. CBU. edu (2006) The importance of effective communication. Retrieved March 27, 2009 from, http://web. cba. neu. edu/~ewertheim/interper/commun. htm Fowler, K. (2006) Communicating Effectively Ã¢â¬â Why you need to get your message across. Retrieved March 27, 2009. 1-4 Giddens, A. and Griffiths, S. (2006) Social Interaction in Everyday Life in Sociology. (US; Polity) Retrieved March 27, 2009. 133-139. Your Communication Skills (2007) Communication skills. Retrieved March 27, 2009 from, http://www. yourcommunicationskills. com/nonverbalcommunicationskills. html